The San Felipe incident, however (see Japan), led to a new persecution in 1596, and twenty-six mission- aries (C Krancisciins, 3 Jesuits, and 17 Japanese Chris- tians) were iTUcilied at Nagasalvi in 1597. Persistent rumors that the taiko was about to revisit Kiushiu in jierson led the (Jovernor of Nagiusaki, who had pre- viously shown himself not unfavourable towards the Christians, to send a force to destroy the churches and residences of the missionaries in 1.598. In the terri- tory of the present Diocese of Nagasaki 137 churches of the Jesuits were demolished, a.s well as their college in .■\makusa ami their seminary in Arinia. The death of Hideyoshi on Ki Sept., 1.59S, put an end to this per- secution, lyeyasu, anxious to promote commerce with the Philippines, allowed free ingress to the mission- aries, and, beyond enforcing the law that no daimio should receive ba])tism, showed at first no hostility to ChrLstianitj'. In lt)03 iS"ag;isaki, the population of which had grown from about 2.500 to 24,500 in fifty years, possessed eleven churches. About 1612 or 1613 the bonzes — assisted, it is to be feared, by some English and Dutch captains — succeetled in thoroughly alarming lyeyasu as to some imaginary intrigue between cerlain of his officers and the repre- sentatives of Philip 1 1 1 of Spain and Portugal. On 27 January, ICIJ, orders were issued for the expulsion of the missionaries and the destruction of the churches. In 1622. Nagasaki was the scene of the "Great Mar- tyrdom". (See MAUTYns, Japanese.) In 1629 the custom of Ftimi-i/c, or trampling on the crucifix, was introduced; [laper pictures were at first used, but later more durable images were utilized — at first wood, and still later (1669) 20 bronze images cast by an engraver of Nagasaki from metal obtained from the altars of the demolished churches. Between the 4th and 9th day of the first month of each year all suspect Chris- tians were called upon to trample on these images: those who refused were banished fom their homes, and when again caught, if still recalcitrant, were taken to the boiling springs of .Shimabara and thrown in, or subjected to crucifixion and various kinds of refined torture. Goaded into action by such persecution and by the miseries consequent on the suppression of the religious houses, which had been the only source of alleviation for the needs of the impover- ished peasantry, the people rose in revolt, in 1637, but, after some fierce fighting, were crushed by the shogun's forces, assisted by Dutch artillery. In 1640 four Portuguese envoys from Macao were seized at Nagasaki, and, on refusing to apostatize, were put to death.
For more than two centuries after 1640, Japan was practically closed to the outside world. The persist- ent attempts of missionaries to penetrate into the country during the sixteenth and seventeenth centu- ries had no other success than that of winning them the martyr's crown. The discovery of a large body of Christians by Father Petitjean on 17 March, 1865, when he was establishing the first Catholic church in Nagasaki, after the reopening of Japan to the mission- aries, has been referred to in the article Japan. In 1866 this zealous mis.»ionary was created Bishop of Myriophyte and Vicar Apostolic of Japan, and in 1876, on the division of the territory into two vicari- ates, he retained the administration of Southern Japan (1879-85). On the cessation of persecution (see JapanJ, Mgr Petitjean devoted his whole energy to winning back into the Fold the descendants of the old Christians, organizing the first Christian districts, and founding a seminary for the formation of a native clergy. He was succeeded as vicar Apostolic by Mgr Julius Alphonsus Cousin (b. April, 1842), now BLshop of Nagasaki. Father Cousin landed in Japan in 1866, and was the first missionary to penetrate into the Goto Islands. In 1S69 he founded the first Catholic station at Osaka, where he laboure<l for eighteen years. Created Bishop of Acmonia in 1885, on aucceeding
Mgr Petitjean, he fixed his residence at Nagasaki, when Southern Japan was divided into two vicariates, in 1887. In 1890 the First Synod of Japan was held at Nagasaki, of which Mgr Cousin became first bishop, on the establishment of the Japanese hier- archy, in 1891. In 1897 the third (•cMlcnnial of the twenty-six Japanese martyrs, canonized by Pius IX in 1867, was celebrated by the construction and solemn benediction of the church of Our Lady of Martyrs at Nagasaki. The episcopal jubilee of Bishop Cousin was celebrated in 1910. During his episcopate of twenty-five years, BLshop Cousin has laljoured to in- crease the native clergy and to extend the work of the mission. He has ordained 40 Japanese priests, founded 35 new stations (with residences), established 38 new Christian settlements, and built 50 churches and chapels. During his administration the Catholic population has more than doubled.
The Diocese of Nagasaki includes Kiushiu and the neighbouring islands — Amakusa, Goto, Ikitsuki, Tsushima, Oshima, and the Ryukyu (Lu Chu) Archi- pelago. The total population is about 7,884,900; the Catholic population was 47,104 on 15 Aug., 1910 (23,-
000 in 1885). The personnel of the mission is: 1 bishop, 36 missionaries (French), 26 diocesan priests (Japanese), 6 tonsured clerics, 35 native (male or fe- male) catechists labouring for the conversion of pa- gans, 350 catechists entrusted with the instruction of the Christian communities, 15 itinerant baptizers (fe- male). The mission auxiliaries, engaged in works of education and charity, are: 17 Brothers of Mary (14 foreigners, including 3 priests), 21 Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus (Chauffailles — 5 Japanese), 16 Franciscan Sisters (Missionaries of Mary), 8 Sisters of St. Paul of Chartres (3 Japanese), 10 communities of native women, with 177 members. The establishments in- clude: 40 mission stations with residences; 35 sub-sta- tions; 153 Christian communities; 67 blessed churches and chapels; 52 unblessed oratories and chapels; 1 seminary with 31 students (8 theological; 4 philosophi- cal; 19 studying Latin); 1 Apostolic school with 18 pupils (10 postulants of the Brothers of Mary); 1 col- lege, primary and commercial, with 325 pupils (30 boarders); 1 school for women catechists, with 15 pupils; 3 boarding-houses for girls with 224 pupils; 1 professional school, with 18 pupils; 1 primary school for girls, with 149 pupils; 2 kindergartens, with 79 pupils; 8 orphanages, with 244 children (65 boarders);
2 workrooms, with 39 workers; 1 leper asylum, with 28 lepers; 3 hospitals, with 92 patients; 6 dispensaries (4005 patients cared for); 15 conference halls for religious instruction (total number of hearers about 2730). The Brothers of Mary have the direction of the Apostolic school and the college. The Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus manage 2 boarding-houses (high- schools), the professional school, primary school, kin- dergartens, 2 orphan asylums, 1 hosi)ital dispensary,
1 conference hall, and 1 work-room. The PVanciscan Sisters have charge of the leper asylum, 1 hospital,
3 dispensaries, 2 conference halls, 1 orphan asylum, and 1 work-room; the Sisters of St. Paul of Chartres; 1 boarding-house (high-school), 1 hospital dispen- sary, 1 conference hall, and 1 orphan asylum. As the State insists on the attendance of all children be- tween the ages of six and twelve at the secular public primary schools, parochial schools are practically im- possible in Japan at present. The administrative statistics for the year ending 15 Aug., 1910, are: bap- tisms of adults, 592 (208 in extremis and 8 abjura- tions); baptisms of pagan children (in extremis), 811; baptisms of Christian children, 1645; annual confes- sions, 29,414; paschal communions, 25,015; Holy Viaticums, 340; extreme unctions, 476; marriages, 323; known deaths, 1067; increase, 1179.
In addition to tlie works named under Japan, consult Thdrs- TON. Japan and Christianity in The Month (Feb.-May, 1906); WoOLEV, Hist. Notes on Nagasaki in Asiatic Society of Japan: Transactions, IX (Yokohama, 1881), 125-51; Caby, Hist, of