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the pope should remain master of Rome, and that Italy's abstention entailed that of Austria, which would have helped France if Italy had. M. Welschin- ger has proved that in 1870 these two powers were in no condition to be of material assistance to France. After the surrender of Sedan (2 September, 1870), Napoleon was sent, a prisoner, to Wilhelmshohe, where he learned that the Republic had been pro- claimed at Paris, 4 September, and that the Pied- montese had occupied Rome (20 September). The National Assembly of Bordeaux, on 28 February, 1871, confirmed the emperor's dethronement. After the Peace of Frankfort he went to reside at Chisel- hurst, where he died. His only son, Eugcne-Louis- Jean-Joseph-Napoleon, born 16 March, 1856, was killed by the Zulus, 23 June, 1879. Napoleon III left unfinished a "Vie de Cesar", begun in 1865, with the assistance of the historian Duruy, and of which only three volumes were published. His history still affords occasion for numerous polemics animated by party feeling. The portrait of him drawn by Victor Hugo m "Les Chatiments" is extremely unfair. Na- poleon was a tender-hearted dreamer, kindness was one of his most evident qualities. As regards his per- sonal practice of religion, he was faithful to his Easter duties. Much of the censure which his foreign policy has merited is equally applicable to the anticlericals and the Republicans of his time, whose press organs were clamouring for French aid towards the speedy realization of Italian unity, while their systematic opposition, in 1868, to the Government programme for strengthening the army was partly responsible for the military weakness of France in 1870.

The works of Napoleon III, including those written before he became emperor, his speeches as president, and his military works were published in 5 vols., Paris, 1854-57, and 1869; Thirhia, NapoUon III amnt I'Empire (2 vols., Paris. 1896); de la Gorge, Histoire du second Empire (7 vols., Paris, 1895-1902); Blanchard Jerrold, Life of Napoleon. Ill (4 vols., London. 1882) ; Forbes, The Life of Napoleon the Third (London, 1898); Woeste, Le regne de Napoleon ///(Brussels, 1907) ; Oluvier, L Empire liberal{14vo\a., Paris, 1895-1910); GlHAnDEAC, Napoleon III intime (Paris, 1895) ; Welschinger, La Guerre de 1870, causes et responsabilites (2 vols.. Paris, 1910). On Napoleon III and the Italian question, see bibliographies to Falloux, Montalembert. Dupanloup, Pius IX, Veuillot; also Giacometti, La question italienne (Paris. 1893); Idem, L'unite italienne (2 vols.. Paris. 1896-98); Thoh- venel, Le secret de I'empereur (2 vols., Paris, 1889) ; Chiala, Poli- tica segreta di Napoleone III e di Cavour in Italia e in Ungheria (Turin, 1895) ; Bourgeois and Clermont, Rome et NapoUon III (Paris, 1907); Bonfadini, Vita di Francesco Arese (Turin, 1894); CauviIire, Un Portrait inMH de Napoleon III in Revue de V Insti- tutut Catholique de Paris (1910), attributed to Falloux, character- izing the attitude of Napoleon III in Italian affairs.

Georges Goyau.

Napper (or N.\pier), George, Venerable, Eng- lish martyr, b. at Holywell manor, Oxford, 1550; ex- ecuted at Oxford 9 November, 1610. He was a son of Edward Napper (d. in 1558), sometime Fellow of All Souls College, by Anne, his second wife, daughter of John Peto, of Chesterton, Warwickshire, and niece of William, Cardinal Peto. He entered Corpus Christi College 5 January, 1565-6, but was ejected in 1568 as a recusant. On 24 August, 1579, he paid a visit to the English College at Reims, and by Decem- ber, 1580, he had been imprisoned. He was still in the Wood Street Counter, London, on 30 September, 1588 ; but was liberated in June, 15S9, on acknowledging the royal supremacy. He entered the English College, Douai, in 1596, and was sent on the mission in 1603. He appears to have lived with his brother William at Holywell. He was arrested at Kirtlington, four miles from Woodstock, very early in the morning of 19 July, 1610, when he had on him a pyx containing two con- secrated Hosts as well as a small reliquary. Brought before Sir Francis Eure at Upper Heyford (Wood says before a justice named Chamberlain), he was strictly searched; but the constable found nothing but his breviary, his holy oils, and a needle case with thread and thimble. The next day he was sent to Oxford Castle, and indicted at the sessions soon after

under 27 Eliz., c. 2 for being a priest. The posses- sion of the oils was held to be conclusive and he was condemned, but reprieved. In gaol he reconciled a condemned felon named Falkner, and this was held to aggravate his crime, but as late as 2 November it was believed that he would have his sentence com- muted to one of banishment. As he refused the oath of allegiance, which described the papal deposing power as a "false, damnable, and heretical" doctrine, it was decided to execute him. He suffered between one and two in the afternoon, having said Mass that morning. His head according to Wood was set up on Tom Gateway; according to Challoner's less prob- able statement on Christ Church steeple. His quar- ters were placed on the four city gates, but at least some were secretly removed, and buried in the chapel (now a barn) of Sanford manor, formerly a preceptory of Knights Templar.

Challoner, Memoirs of Missionary Priests, II, no. 147; Clark, Wood's City of Oxford, III (Oxford, 1899), 184, 186; Wood, Annals, II (Oxford, 1796), 165, 166; Fowler, History of Corpus Christi College (Oxford. 1893), 389; Stapleton, Post-Reformation Catholic Missionsin Oxfordshire (London. 1906), 4, 190, 199, 211-8, 323-4; Knox, First and Second Diaries of the English College, Douay (Lon- don, 1878), 16, 33, 155, 174; Catholic Record Soc. Publ. (London, 1905 — ), I. 133-4, II, 284; Lemon, Calendar Stale Papers Domestic 1681-90 (London, 1865), 606.

John B. Wainewright.

Narbonne. See Toulouse, Archdiocese of.

Nardi, Jacopo, Italian historian; b. at Florence, 1476; d. at Venice, 11 March, 1,563. His father, Salvestro Nardi, belonged to an old Florentine fam- ily, originally from the suburbs of the city. Jacopo was an earnest follower of Savonarola, whose death he witnessed. He was attached to the Republican party, under which he held various offices in the State, but nevertheless kept on friendly terms with the Medici after their restoration in 1512, and even com- posed pageants for them. Having been concerned in the Republican revolution of 1527, he was banished from Florence in 1530, and took a leading part in the efforts of the exiles to return, pleading their cause against the tyranny of Duke Alessandro before Charles V, in 1536. He finally settled at Venice, where he died in poverty. All his contemporaries bear witness to his upright and noble character. Before his exile, Nardi composed two comedies "L'Amieizia" and "I Due Felici Rivali", together with a few canli carnascialeschi, or carnival -songs. To a later date belong his political discourses, his trans- lations from Livy and Cicero, and his Life of Antonio Giacomini, an austere soldier of the republic who died in 1517. His "Istorie della cittS, di Firenze" (History of the City of Florence) was written in the last years of his life. It deals with the tragic epoch in Floren- tine history from 1494 until within a few years of the author's death, and is especially noteworthy for its high moral tone and its faithful record of the events in which Nardi himself had shared.

Gelli, ed., Istorie della citld di Firenze di Jacopo Nardi (Flor- ence, 1858); Gargiolli, ed.. Vita di A7itoTiio Giacomini e altri scriUi minori di Jacopo Nardi (Florence, 1867) ; PlER.\LLI, La vita e le opere di Jacopo Nardi (Florence, 1901).

Edmund G. Gardner.

Nardo, Diocese of (Neritonensis), in southern Italy. Nard6 was already an episcopal see, when, about 761, Greek monks arrived there, fleeing from the persecutions of the Iconoclasts. Paul I assigned to these monks the episcopal palace and the revenues of the see, then vacant, and the city was made part of the Diocese of Brindisi. The monastery bacame a centre of Greek culture; but, in 1090, Urban II put Latin Benedictines there, and Paschal II gave episco- pal jurisdiction to the abbot; for a long time Ae Greek and Latin rites were maintained together at the mon- astery. In 1388, a bishop was established at Nardd by the antipope, Clement VII, but was deposed by Boniface IX, who entrusted the care of the diocese to the Archbishop of Otranto. The latter proposed to