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suppress the Greek Rite in the diocese, but, at the inst!in<-o of (lie Benedictines and of King Ladislaii.s the pope maintained its use. From the report made on this suhjoot. it is known that the Greek Rite ob- tained in sixteen towns of the diocese, and that there was a prolopope at Halatone. The see was re-estab- hshed in lli;j, m favour of Giovanni degli Epifani. Other bisliops were Ambrogio Salvi, O P (1569) who introduced the reforms of the Council of Trent' I'abio Fornari (15S;!), who also tried to abolish the use of the Greek Rite; Lelio Landi (1607), a learned (Jrientahst, employed by the Congregation de auiiUis and also m the correction of the Vulgate; Fabio Chigi (l();i.)), who became Alexander VII; Antonio Saiif(|Iice (1707), founder of a public hbrary and of a workliouse for girls. The diocese is directly deijend- ent on the Holy See. It has 16 parishes, with 70,.500 inhabitants, 2 houses of Franciscans, and 4 religious houses of women, 2 schools for boys, and 4 for girls Cappelletti. Le Chiese d' Italia. XX (Venice, 1857).

U. Benigni.

Nami and Temi, United Dioceses of (Narnien- 8IS ET lNTER.\.MNENSis), in Central Italy. Narni is the ancient Nequinum of the Sabines; in 300 and 2U9 B. c. It was besieged by the Romans, who de- stroyed the city and sent there a Latin colony, chang- ing the name to Narnia. Luitprand captured the town in t'lb, but Pope Zacharias persuaded him to re- store It to the Duchy of Rome in 742, after which it remained under pontifical rule. From 1198 to 114 N ami was in rebellion against Innocent III, who tem- porarily suppressed its episcopal see. The churches o tins city contain many paintings of the ancient Umbrian school. This town is the birthplace of the Blessed Lucia of Narni, a tertiary of St. Dominic, who died in 1.344, and of the condotliere Erasmo Gattame- lata. Narni venerates as its first bishop the martyr Juvenahs who died in the second half of the fourth century; St. Maximus, who was bishop in 425 was succeeded by his two sons Hercules and Pancratius; u A^^S"^' Vil ^r^* '"^^'^8 to the bishop St. Cassius who died in S.-jS; the same pontiff wrote a letter to the bishop Projectinus which shows that, at Nami, at that I'T' .n?m "^^^'^ "" P^S^"s to be converted; Bishop John (940) was succeeded by his son, who became John .\III; among other bishops were: William, a Pranciscan, whom Urban V employed against the Fra- ticeUi (1.36(); and Raimondo CastelU (1656), founder of the seminar>'.

In 1908, the sees of Narni and of Terni were united lerni is on the river Nera, at its confluence with the Velmo; the magnificent cascade of the latter is well- • "^'r'n M . °,"r^^ t*i^ noble description by Lord Byron M . "-'"We IJT.^ ' •. Temi is the ancient Interanma Nahars of the Lmbrians, and its former splendour is witnessed to by the ruins of an amphitheatre in the garden of the episcopal palace, a theatre, and baths near the church of St. Nicholas. The cathedral, and other churches, are built on the sites of pagan tem- Pi^'^'r, u '"' cS ^o™bard invasion, Terni belonged to the Duchy of Spolcto, and with the latter, came into the Pontifical States; it was at this town that Pope Zacharuis entered into the agreement with King Luit- prand for the restitution of the cities of Bieda Orte Bomarzo, and Amelia to the Duchy of Rome. It is Deheved that the gospel was preached at Terni by St Peregrinus, about the middle of the .second century! Ihe townsmen have great veneration for St Valen- tinus, basilica is outside the city, and was p^obabl>^ the meeting-place of the first Christians of lemi. I here were other martyrs from this city among them, Sts. Proculas, Ephebus, Apollonius, and

Rith.r'f'^^" i^"""^^- ^? ^^'^ *'™^ of Totila, the Bishop of Terni, St. Proculus, was killed at Bologna and ht. Domnina and ten nuns, her companions were put to death at Terni itself. After the eighth century

lerni was without a bishop until 1217, in which year the diocese w:us re-established. Among its bishops since that time, were Ludovico Mazzanco III (14061 who governed the diocese for fifty-two vears; Cosma.s Manueci (U)2.'i), who gave the high altar to the c:i(lie- dral, and .ranceseo Rapaccioli (1046), a cardinal who restored the cathedral. The united sees are iminedi-

l-^/rc7-An •?V"?°". ^0°™?.= *^^>' '^'^^•e 57 parishes,

with 66,000 inhabitants, 3 religious houses of men and II of women. '

Cappelletti, LeChiese d'ltalm. VI; Maoalotti, Terni osaia lanttca Interamna (Foligno, 1795).

U. Benigni. Narther, in early Christian architecture a portion of the church at the west end, separated from the nave hj- a low wall or screen and reserved for the catecliuinens, energumens, and penitents who were not admitted amongst the congregation. The nar- thex was of two kinds, exterior and interior- the for- mer consisted of an open atrium arcade continued across the front of the church; in the latter, the aisle and gallery were returned the nave A sur- vival of the exterior narthex mav be found in the church of San Ambrogio at Milan; of the interior narthex, in Santa Agnese, at Rome. The outer narthex was sometimes used as a hall of judgment and for other secular purposes, and, after the sixth century, as a place of burial, while the inner narthex sometimes called the malroneum, was used, probably' for certain persons of rank or distinction, rather than as a women's gallery. After the abandonment of the atrium in the West, about 1000, the narthex developed by degrees into the great west porch which is so characteristic of the churches of southern France Among the monastic orders it continued in use down to the beginning of the thirteenth century, as for ex- ample in the abbeys of Cluny and Vezelay. With the full development of Gothic it disappeared, its place being taken by the three great western porches or doorways. Properly speaking, the name should have ceased with the function, and the so-called nar- thex of medieval churches and abbeys should justly be called a porch. For the same reason there is no excuse for the recent revival of the word as a designation either of an exterior porch, or an interior vestibule.

Ralph Adams Cram.

Nashyille, Diocese of, comprises the entire terri- tory of the State of Tennessee. From its inland loca- tion and peculiar civil history, it has not profited much from the tide of immigration, and hence its Catholic development has been chiefly due to its own internal work. There is little need of consulting any historical references as to the growth of the Church in Tennessee since no such work of any importance exists. This is chiefly due to the fact that heretofore the diocese was m an embryo state and those w'ho could write its his- tory had neither time nor opportunity to do what was so much needed. Up to twenty years ago, or in the decade of 1880-90, much of the diocesan history could have been learned from the early pioneers of Catho- licity, or their children, who were then living. The Diocese of Nashville was established 28 July, 1837, having been separated from the Diocese of Bardstown (now Diocese of Louisville) and the first Bishop of Nashville was Rt. Rev. Richard Pius Miles, conse- crated at Bardstown, 16 Sept., 1838. Before this date there is no authentic record of any ecclesiastical mis- sionary work in what is now the State of Tennessee except in sporadic efforts. The eariiest records at- tainable are two letters in the archives of Baltimore dated 1799, to Bishop Carroll from Father Badin, con- cerning an offer from John Sevier, the first governor of Tennessee, that Father Badin might arrange for the immigration of at least one hundred Catholic families for whose maintenance the governor guaranteed sep-