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1430, and died six months later in the odour of sanc- tity. Miracles having been wrought at his tomb, the question of the confirmation of his cult is at present (1910) before the Congregation of Rites. Of his numerous works only tlic "Doi'trinale antiquitatura fidei eeclesia- calluilii';!'" has permanent value. It is in three ])arts, tlic firsi of uhicli might be termed "De vera religione", the second bears the title "De sacra- mentis adversus Wiclefistas" etc., and the last "De sacramentalibus". The first two were presented to the pope, who on 8 August, 1427, expressed his satis- faction, encouraging the author to continue his useful and learned undertaking, and communicating to him the text of the Bull condemning the errors of VVyclif "Dudum ab apo.stolorum". Nevertheless the work, owing to its bulk, would have fallen into oblivion had not some Carmelites, notably Ludovicus de Lyra and John Hottus, discovered it in the library of Paris and secured its publication (1523). It was re- printed at Paris (1.532), Salamanca (1557), Venice (1571 and 1757). It is a complete apologia of Cath- oHc dogma and ritual as against the attacks of the Wyclifiites, and was largely drawn upon by the con- troversialists of the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- turies.

Zimmerman, Monumenla histoT. Carmel., I (L^rins, 1907), 442 sqq.

Benedict Zimmerman.

Neugart, Trudpert, Benedictine historian, b. at Villingen, Baden, 23 February, 1742; d. at St. Paul's Benedictine abbey, near Klagenfurt, Carinthia, Aus- tria, 15 December, 1825. Of middle-class origin Neu- gart studied in the classical schools of the Benedictine Abbeys of St. George and St. Blasien, entered the order at the latter monastery in 1759, and was ordained priest in 1765; in 1767 he was appointed professor of Biblical languages at the University of Freiburg. In 1770, however, he returned to St. Blasien, where he professed theology. While engaged in this work he published a treatise on penance, "Doctrina de Sacra- mento poenitentije recte administrando" (St. Blasien, 1778). His abbot, Gerbert, had planned the publica- tion of a Church history of Germany on a large scale (Germania sacra). In 1780 at his request Neugart began an elaborate research into the history of the Diocese of Constance. On Gerbert's death in 1793, Neugart declined the dignity of abbot but accepted the provostship of Krozingen, near Freiburg, so as to be able to devote himself entirely to historical studies. He published the original charters and documents for the history of the Diocese of Constance in a separate publication, "Codex diplomaticus Aleraannia; et Bur- gundia; transjurana' intra fines dioecesis Constantien- Bis" (I, St. Blasien, 1791; II, St. Blasien, 1795). With this as a basis he wrote at Krozingen the first in- stalment of his history of the Diocese of Constance "Episcopatus Constantiensis Alemannicus sub metro- poli Moguntina" (part I, vol. I, to the year 1100, St. Blasien, 1803). Soon the abbey of St. Blasien was secularized. Notwithstanding Neugart's efforts for its preservation it was assigned to Baden, and absorbed with all its landed possessions. In 1807 Neugart went to Vienna to negotiate for the settlement of the ex- pelled monks in Austria, and succeeded. The abbot and monks of St. Blasien were granted the Abbey of St. Paul, near Klagenfurt in the valley of the Lavant, suppressed by Joseph II. Here Neugart completed the .second volume of his diocesan history extending to 1308, but it was not published until 1862. He then turned his attention to the history of Carinthia and of the Abbey of St. Paul, where he and his companions had found refuge. After his death there appeared his "Historia monasterii Ord. S. Benedicti ad S. Paulum in valle inferioris Carinthia; Lavantina" (Klagenfurt, 1S48, 1854). Several historical treatises and compila- ■ tions are still in MS. Another work, " Libellus majo-

res maternos Rudolphi I regis exhibens", was edited by Weber (Klagenfurt, 1850).

Bader, Das ehemnlige Kloster St. Blasien auf dem Schwarz- waUc un,l .leiiie Gclehrlcnakadcmie. (Freiburg, 1874). 115-120; HuRTER, Nomoiclatar (Innsbruck, 1.805), 859 sq.


Neuixi (Latin ncuma, pncuma, or ncupma, from Greek TrwO/xa, a breath, or vcOfxa, a nod), a term in medieval music theory. It does not seem to have been used before the eleventh century. From that time it was generally taken in two senses, to denote, first, a kind of melody, second, a notational sign. Guido of Arezzo ("Micrologus", xv) takes it in a third sense, in which he seems to be singular, saying: "As in metrics there are letters and syllables, parts and feet, and verses, so in music there are tones, of which one, two, or three join to make a syllable; of these one or two make a neuma, that is a part of the melody; while one or several parts make a distinction (phrase), that is, a suitable place for breathing."

Applied to a melody, the term means a series of tones sung without words, generally on the last vowel of a text. The older name for such a melody is iubilus. Thus St. Jerome (In Psalm xxxii, P. L., XXVI, 915) defines: "That is called iubilus which neither in words nor syllables nor letters nor in speech can utter or de- fine how much man ought to praise God". Similarly St. Augusrine says (P.salin xcix, P. L., XXXVII, 1272) : "He who sings a iubilus, does not utter words, but the iubilus is a song of joy without words." And again (in Ps. xxxii, P. L., XXXVI, 283): "And for whom is this iubilaiio more fitting than for the ineffable God? " Finally the following passage from St. Augustine's contemporary, Ca.ssian ("De Cccnobiorum Inst.", II, ii, P. L., XLIX, 77) must remove any doubt as to the use of such iubili in the Liturgy. He says of certain monasteries that "they held there should be sung every night twenty or thirty psalms and those, too, prolonged by antiphon melodies, and the joining on of certain modulations."

The usual place of such neums is in responsorial singing (see Plain Chant), especially at the end of the Alleluia which follows the Gradual of the Mass. In the later Middle Ages, however, from about the twelfth century onwards, the custom grew up of add- ing neums, definite formula;, one for each mode, to the office antiphons, there being special rubrics in the liturgical books as to the days on which they should be sung or not sung. The more important use of the term is that in which it means the signs used in the notation of Gregorian Chant. Akin to this use is the one which applies it to the tones or groups of tones designated by the notational signs. Also in this sense the term cannot be traced farther back than the elev- enth century. The names of the various signs, too, seem to date from about the same period. Previou.sly the general name for the notation was usus. The names of the single signs varied with time and place. The tables of neums found in several MSS not only differ in the number of names, but also give different names for the same sign, or different signs for the same name. In this article we shall use the names as ap- plied in the Preface to the (Jradual recently issued from the Vatican printing cstabli.shment.

The neumatic notation of Plain Chant is first met with in MSS of the ninth century and, with slight modifications, is to be seen in liturgical books issued to-day. Whether its use goes much farther back, whether, in particular, St. Gregory the Great em- ployed notation in his typical Antiphonarium, cannot be said with certainty. The fact that at the date of our earliest MSS. the insufficiency of the notation was felt, and various efforts were made to supply the de- fect, would seem to point to an antecedent develop- ment of considerable duration. On the other hand the fact that from the beginning we find several fami- lies of notation like those of St. Gall and Metz, which,