while aRrpping in the main prineiples, show consider- able cliversence in malters of detail, woidd seem to sUKKest that at the lime when these faniili.s started, only the fundamental idea had been conceived, while
t he full devel opment of the wL^^ ^;^™: '.oo^ p,;- A^CinXa^es::^s:^Sr;odr:Ser';iot^|\i°
Accordingly the fundamental principle is that the rise and fall of the melody are exi)resscd by (|,,. sIl'iw of the aceeM.us acutus ( / ) an,l the accntus gravis \ \ ) . I he acut us, beuiK drawn upwards, from left to
BMlX.alSli.itl lOBAHms pEc rvfiikmfilettf- 1 flme<f-VnJe fiduahy fiuxeruat Jocmata. uiiac- 1 V impfeP- itoctjae docetnv^
/ / .. fr J I I f^ . .
pAcni dacatc.uerbum aropctum'
•5 •a>L> Cjr ^rtA jiMCfi • • \ D iv f P £ I ;
-^- . "i /' /• f f J f J I
con uiututn ■ > xou.-
AP Of f > KIO AJ tF-
Ilu I.— The Winchester Tropes (XI Century) Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, No. 473 (reduced about one-third)
S^^r It^^a^^t^rr ^Z l=;!!:l°^^.^--^^.,^^=^'HntHen.elody,a
I A ■ C •"-..K>-"v.v,uoij. cvi, luc various centres. Judging by the consideration mentioned first, we should have no difficulty in believing that St. Gregory used neumatic notation in his Antiphonary In ac- cordance with the second view, however, we should feel inclined to put the beginning of neumatic writing about the eighth century. ^
As to the origin of the neums students are now on the whole agreed that they are mainly derived from
I ' >-^ -_--.. — ..„. V..U, i*. .till 111 iinj lUCIUU v. it
lower note From the combination of these two signs there result various group signs: (1) A, acutus and gravis, a higher note followed by a lower one, a descend- ing group of two.notes (clivis) ; (2) V , gravis and acu- tus, lower and higher notes (pes or podatus) • (3) yv acutus, gravis, acutus; a group of three notes of which the second is the lowest (porrectus) ; (4) V\ gravis acutus, gravis; a group of three notes of which the sec-
h'^ ©fVeriffc nob if bo mxpi: nufe- » *// y t R%f T 'rordia7n ru Am er;fAhi-K*-\ V^^* Y' §
a- ' ^ "^ ^/t . "t..y ■• .'v'^- "^ .-. .(^ .-.. <^r-
.^••^fere ^or7^7?^e letiam ArjjmA/n
the accent marks of the grammarians. In that way, of course, they point back to Greece. From the fact
^ZTt*.^^' '?'""'?' ^^^ >'"' '" the developed sys- tem look like signs in Byzantine notation and that
gators have concluded that the whole .system was taken over from Greece. Recently J. Thibet hS defended this theoo' in a rather fanciful book '-Qr^ f atln^^""'"R"f .H? '" -^°t^,t.i°n Neumatique de I'Eglise Latine . But the prevailing opinion is that the neu- matic system is of Latin growth.
Ill if.— Codex 121 (X-XI Century), Einsiedeu*
ond IS the highest (torculus); and so on. In these combinations the elements generally preserve their original form pretty clearly, except that the angles are often rounded off, as indicated below. When used sing y, the acutus, too, retained its shape fairly accu- rately and from its shape received the name virga (vir- gula). The gravis, however, was generally converted into a short horizontal line (— ),or adot (,), or some- thing similar, and hence received the name of punc- tum. In this form it is also used in an ascending group of three or more notes (..^ , seandicus) and in a