mentioned above, which comprise the large majority of all the cases. Also to the case of single m and j (or i), the latter partiikinn of the nature of the liquid con- sonants. It would further iipply to the ca.sc of (jn, if we suppose that that combination was pronounced ny,
de- amus * omnes in D(5mi
■« ] ^ ' J — R**— ■-
no, di-em festum ce-lebrantes sub bono-
Fi- li- um De- i.
Mus. Ex. 2
and to the case of final s, if that consonant was voiced, when it also could be sung. In the case of the diph- thong au the liquescence would consist in the transi- tion from the first vowel to the second. The remain- ing cases of double consonants should be explained by analogj-, the liquescence consisting simply in the short- ening of the vowel sound made for the purpose of dis- tinct pronunciation of the group of consonants with- out loss of time. This explanation would have the further advantage of being in accordance with the practice of the best choirs that nowadays make a pecu- liar study of Plain Chant.
Some of the Hquescent neums have special names.
^ . ■ ■ ^r
-entes *veni- te ad a-quas,
di-cit Domi-nus: et qui non hab^-tis
pre- ti-um, veni- te, bi- bi te cum lae- ti-
re Agathae Marty-risrde cujus passi-6-
8 — ' j 1- -V
ne gaudent Ange- li, et collaii- dant
hook form. In the first place we mention the strophi- cus, having I he shape of a comma ( > ). When occur- ring singly, it is iuIUmI apostropha, when doubled, dls- lro|)li,i; when Irchlc.l, liislropha. The apost ropha is generally luun<l at the end of another neum, or fol- lowed by a distropha at a higher pitch; it is ne\'er used as a single note over a syllable. When added to a netnn, it, is generally represented in the later staff- notation manuscripts at the same pitch as the last note of t hat neuni. But there is reason to believe that originally- tlicre was an interval smaller than a semi- tone between those two notes. The distropha and trislropha iiiilicate a quick repetition of the same note, possibly again with a minute difference of pitch between the repeated notes.
Akin to the apostropha is the oriscus, having a shape somewhat like this: S . Apostropha and oris- cus are sometimes interchanged in different manu- scripts. In a few instances the oriscus, however, is
Ustus * ut palma eU. y. Ad annun-
ne mi- se-ric6rdi-am tu-
am, et veri-tatem
h^f* J ' ^ T^
Mds. Ex. 3 Tlius the hquescent podatus is called epiphonus, the liquescent chvLs, cephalicus, the liquescent cUmacus, ancus.
In addition to the neums which are derived from the accents and which form the groundwork of the neumatic system, there is another class which may be taken as indicating special effects. They have, as Wagner has pointed out, as a common feature, the
Mo3. Ex. 4
found as the single sign over a syllable. The qui- lisma is generally written as a number of hooks open to the right and joined together (M* •> t**'). Itoccursin- variably as the middle note in an ascending group and seems to indicate a gUde of the voice, being accom- panied by a sustaining of the note or group of notes preceding it. The salicus is a figure like the scandi- cus, but with the second note in the shape of a hook opening downwards ( .-^ ). It seems to indicate a pro- longation of the middle note. Sometimes, in staff- notation manuscripts, the first two notes are given at the same pitch. Possibly here again there was a dif- ference of less than a semitone between them. The pressus is a kind of combination of a virga with added oriscus and a punctum (. n ) , pressus minor, /^ , pres- sus major). It is generally understood as equivalent to a clivis with the first note prolonged and rendered sforzalo. Finally to be mentioned is the trigon, a com- bination of three puncta, the middle one being higher than the other two (.'.). From its shape it would seem to be a kind of toreulus, but it is often tran- scribed with the first two notes at the same pitch, sug- gesting once more a minute interval not expressible in staff notation.
The illustrations which accompany this article are