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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/841

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NEUM


769


NEUM


reproduced, by kind permission of the editors, from the "Pal(5ographie Musicale". Illustration I ("Pal. Mus.", Ill, pi. 179) represents the type of the Anglo- Saxon neums of the eleventh century. The piece is a trope for the Introit "In medio". The three portions


pes subpunctis, on the last syllable of salutifere. The strophicus (on med) has here no distinct sign, but is written with the ordinary virga sign. The oriscus, however, is clearly marked. Thus we have a virga with oriscus (also called franculus) on the first sylla-



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, . J\ 1^ f •' . >'_!! Ij^ il ^ ■^^


t


tctct dotritnuf


£ccatti ricn Hub



&



at^


T c 1 J


,J


4.cOVicvccC^ ufficzxM ^«f nan

1 1


-Moz.\R,vBlc Liber Ordinitm (a. d. 1052) Library of St. Dominic, Silos


of the Introit itself are merely indicated by the cues In Med., El impleb., and Stola. The signs for the single notes are the plain virga and the round punc- tuni, the former on the last syllable of iohannis, the second and third syllables of adimplens, etc., the latter on the second syllable of Gratia, the second syllable of Dei, the first of iohannis, etc. In the podatus the gravis is a short horizontal stroke, the acutus a straight virga joining almost at a right angle; see third syllable of Gratia, third of salutifere, third of dogmata, etc. There is also a second form consisting of a dis- jointed punctura and virga, see third syllable of Gloria (last line on left page), first syllable of xristus


ble of Gratia, and the full pressus (virga, oriscus, and punetum) on the first syllable of pectus, the first of fluxerunt, etc. The quilisma is shown on the second syllable of celsa, where we first have a punetum, serv- ing as the starting-point, then the triple curve of the quilisma itself, to which the virga stroke, representing the highest note, is attached. We have it again on the second syllable of impleb., where a second virga follows, the whole figure representing the notes/ gab^r. A less usual sign is found on the first syllable of cams (last line, right page). The quilisma there is followed by a climacus in which the three signs, acutus and two graves are joined together: />7 .


/ r-'-fi 'Jl



III. V. — Aquitanian Notation (XI Century) BibliothSque Nationale, Paris, Fonds latin. No. 1134


(first line of right page), third syllable of (tternum (fourth line). This is considered as indicating a long form of the podatus. The Uquescent form (epi- phonus) is marked by a rounding of the angle; see sec- ond syllable of iohannis, third syllable of fluxerunt. The clivis shows the curved angle, as on second sylla- ble of pectus, second and fourth of salutifere. The


Illustration II ("Pal^ogr. Mus.", IV, pi. A) is from a MS. written in the monastery of Einsiedeln at the end of the tenth or the beginning of the eleventh century. It belongs to the St. Gall school of notation. The affinity of this school to the Auf^lo-Saxon i.s evi- dent. There are, however, a number of pecniliarities. First we find a greater variety of signs. Thus the


liquescent form (cephalicus), somewhat shortened, is virga appears in two forms, one slightly curved to the


seen on the third syllable of iohannem (first line on right page). The torculus is seen on the first syllable of adimplens, first syllable of docenle (fourth line), etc. On the first syllable of celsa we have the torculus liquescens, the last gravis being shortened. The por- rectus is easily recognizable on the first syllable of Stola. A climacus occurs on the second syllable of docenle (fourth line) being followed by an epiphonus; a X.— 49


right and vanishing at the top, the other straighter and with a thickening at the top. This second vari- ety arises, graphically, from its being drawn down- wards, the pen spreading itself a little at the start of the stroke. For the rendering it indicates a longer form of the note. We find the first form on the first syllable of Ostende, the fifth of misericordiam, etc., the second on the second syllable of Osterulc (first sign),