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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/842

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NEUM


770


NEUM


on the first syllable of luam (second sign), etc. Sim- ilarly we have for the punetum, besides the dot form, that" of a short horizontal line. This is also some- times used for one of the pimcta of the elima(;us (first syllable of tiiam, third and sixth neums, etc.) and towards the end of the group neuma on nofci.s- (fifth sign from the end) w-e see a trigon suhpuncte, the la-st dot of the trigon and the added punctuni being drawn out. The podatus appears in three forms; first with rounded corner, as on the third syllable of A III I II ill (first sign); second with some pen pressure on the initial stroke and a fairly square angle, as on the fourth .-iyllable of Alldiiia (third sign); and third, with a more elaborate gravis, as in the final neuma of nobis (.second last sign). The first may be considered as the normal form, the second marks a firmer rendering of the first note, and the third a decided leaning on it. The torculus appears in its plain form (.second syllable of Oslciitic, fourth syllable of miscricordiam) and with penpressureoM both graves ( ^T" ) marking a prolonga- tion of the whole figure (first syllable of luum, seventh sign). The two forms of the prcssus, minor and ma- jor, are found in the final neuma of Alleluia (fourth last and last signs). Of liquescent signs we have a scandieus liquescens on the first syllable of Alleluia, a


century (see "Pal. Mus.", IV, pi. 9; Wagner, "Ein- leitung", II, 114). The litterm si(inijir<ilirir are of two cl.asses, one referring to rhythm, the ullicr referring to pitch. Of the former class we find in our illustration frequently the c (celeriler) and the t (tenele). At the beginning of the Offertory (last line of illustration) we find also the m (niediocriler) modifying the effect of the iireceding c. Of the second class we fiml the o {equalitir) enjoining the same pitch belwoi'U lUmiine and mixerieordiam between the second and third syllables of misericordiam and between luam and et. To give a clearer idea of the meaning of the neums in this illustration we subjoin the notation of the same piece according to the Vatican edition, pointing out only the few differences in the two readings. On the first syllable of "Alleluia" the Vatican edition omits the liquescence; similarly on the third syllable of that word and on the final syllable of "misericordiam ". It may be mentioned in this connexion that a very fre- quent use of liquescence is characteristic of the St. Gall school. The strophici on Alleluia and luum are given as ordinary puncta. Similarly the special sign for the pressus has disappeared and is replaced by a doubling of the first note. The first of these two notes of the same pitch is then sometimes combined with the pre-


^. ^^y^^^^^X^.


fuirr 4tr.t a Tu t if vri*


ttaif honoTA • -a



•a;^^ ptnnct^d xuCto rutn


Bibliothdq'

distropha liquescens on the third, an epiphonus on the last syllable of misericordiam.

A second peculiarity of the St. Gall notation is the occasional addition of a little stroke to the neums, marking a prolongation of the affected note. The " Paleographie Musicale" (IV, pi. 17) has given the name episema to this little addition. Mention has al-


.\XD Troper op 8t-Evroult (XII Century) Nationale, Pariis, Fonds latin, No. 10508


ceding neum. Thus at the end of the A lleluia neuma it joins the virga to form a clivis, .and at the end of the neuma on nobis the podatus of the MS. is changed into a torculus. These things are in accordance with the general practice of the later Middle Ages. Towards the end of the neuma on tunm (where in the MS. the neums surmount the second s.vUable) the staff nota-


ready been made of the thickening of the head of the tion substitutes a pes subbipunctis for a virga and

virga, which often amounts to a distinct stroke. Our climacus— a mere graphic difference. Similarly on

illustration gives examples of a similar addition to the da a porrectus and virga are replaced by a clivis and

last note of tlie torculus ( C/i instead of tO ), the last podatus.

of the porrect us, t he first and the second of the clivis. Illustration III, taken from a MS. of the ninth

The episematic torculus is seen in the final neuma of or the beginning of the tenth century in the library

niMs (before the first trigon). The first sign in the of Laon, which is in course of publication in the

same neuma is al.so an episematic torculus followed by "Pal. Mus." (p. 2S), shows the Metz notation. On the

another long i)un<'tum. On the first syllable of tmnn first two syllables of Gaudeamus we have the familiar

we have an episematic porrectus, followed by two punetum dot. On the third we recognize easily

puncta, while the plain porrectus appears on the first a podatus followed by a virga. But on the last we

syllable of domine (third sign). The cfivis with meet the most characteristic sign of this school, the

episema to the first note is found on the first syllable punetum consisting of a short slanting line with a little

of luam (first sign) and twice towards the end of the hook added. Of the clivis form peculiar to this school

neuma on luum. On the second syllable of nobis, ourillustration contains noexample;butontheBecond

after the torculus gubpunctis already mentioned, we syllable of /es/itm and the second and fourth oi cele-

have a clivis with the episema attached to the second brantes we have the porrectus, which in its first two

note, the clivis being preceded by two short puncta strokes contains the clivis. There are two forms of the

and followed by a long one. torculus, one with sharp angles, on the first syllable

Thirdly, we find as a peculiarity of this notation the of domino, the second of honore (where it is preceded

addition of certain letters. These are often called by a punetum), etc.; the other rounded, on the third

"Romanian" letters, because a St. Gall writer of the syllable of honore and the ionrih ol passione. Of

eleventh century attributes their use to a singer named liquescent neums we find the epiphonus on the second

Romanus who, according to him, brought the chant syllableof 'iifm and the third of ce/chrare/c.s, the cephal-

from Rome to St. Gall towards the end of the eighth icus on the first of o»mes, a pes subbipunctis liquescens