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to the West of the same meridian, belong ecclesiasti- cally to the Diocese of Salt Lake, Province of San Francisco, while the territory west of the 117th merid- ian, with the exception of Austin and the country bor- dering on the Reese River, belong to the Diocese of Sacramento, of the same province. According to the Bureau of the United States Census (Bulletin No. 103, Religious Bodies, 1906) the Catholic population of Nevada was then 9,970, or 66% of the entire religious population of the State. The following are the princi- pal denominations of the State and the church mem- bers in each: Catholics 9,970, or 66% of the total; Episcopalians 1,210, or 8%; Latter Day Saints 1,105, or 7%; Methodists 618, or 4%; Presbyterians 520, or 3 J 2%; Baptists 316, or 2%.

Catholic Immigration. — Catholics have gone toNe- vada at difTercnt times, along with the general influx of population into the Western States from the Middle States in 1845-75. Since the very beginning of the history of the State, the Catholic Church has been an important factor in the upbuilding of the common- wealth and the welfare and education of the people. The dithculties encountered were not easy to overcome in the midst of an unsettled, careless, and often law- less community in the years 1850-70. After the es- tablishments of the first Catholic churches in the new country by Fathers Gallagher, Monteverde, and Mer- ril, came the great benefactor Father Monogue, who in 1863 established the pioneer benevolent organiza- tion of Nevada or the St. ^'incent de Paul Benevolent Society. This was at a time when organizations of this kind were very much in need in the western coun- tries, and the praiseworthy work of this society, the charities of which were extended to all, regardless of creed, cannot be too highly commended. Father Monogue also established in 1864, the Nevada orphan asylum, two Catholic schools, St. Mary's school for girls and St. Vincent's school for boys, and St. Mary's hosi)ital, all under the care of Sisters.

Religious Polity. — The State constitution guaran- tees to all individuals absolute freedom of worship and toleration of religious sentiment. By statutory law, all amusements, business transactions, opening of saloons and gambling, are forbidden on Sundays, but the law has never been rigidly enforced. There is no law demanding a compulsory administration of a fixed form of oath, and a simple affirmation or negation suffices before the law. There are no statutory laws of any kind that forbid blasphemy or profanity. It is customary to open the Legislature, the school year at the State University and many of the public schools with prayer, but there are no laws either for or against such practices. By statutory law, however, religious instruction of any kind is absolutely forbidden in the public schools, and the public school funds cannot be used for sectarian purposes. Sunday, New Year's Day, Washington's Birthday, (Admission Day), Thanksgiving, and Christmas are designated by law as non-j udicial days and are observed as legal holidays. There is no law recognizing religious holidays as such. No statutory law exists as regards the seal of confes- sion, but it is presumed that the same is inviolable. Churches may be incorporated. All church property that is used only for church purposes is by law exempt from taxation, and malicious injury to churches or church property is by law punishable by fine or even imprisonment. The lawfully licensed clergy of all denominations is exempt from jury and military ser- vice. Marriage is recognized by law as a civil con- tract. It may be performed by any licensed minister or a civil judge. With the consent of the parents marriage may be contracted by a man and woman of the ages of eighteen and sixteen respectively, and with- out the parents' consent only at the ages of twenty-one and eighteen or over respectively. The parties con- tracting marriage must not be nearer kin than second cousins, or cousins in the second blood. The divorce

laws of the State are very liberal. By the State law, divorces may be granted for impotency, adultery, desertion, infamy, cruelty, drunkenness, or neglect to provide.

Bancroft. History of Nevada, Cotorado and Wyoming (San Francisco, 1890); Biennial report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Nevada (Carson City, 1909) ; Bureau of the Census of the United States: Bulletin No. JOS, Religious Bodies (Waaliington, IflOG); Cutting, Compiled Laws of the State of Nevada, ISiJI-lOnO (Carson City, 1900); Catholic Directory (Mil- waukee and New York, 1910) ; History of Nevada (Oakland. 1881) ; International Year Book (New York, 1909); Report of the United States Commissioner of Education (Washington. 1908, 1909); University of Nevada, Register for 1909-10 (Carson City, 1910).

Adrelio M. Espinosa.

Neve, titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Two of its bishops are known: Petronius, who at- tended the Council of Ephesus in 431, and Jobius, who was present at that of Chalcedon in 451. Isaac, a third bishop, mentioned by Le (^uien about 540 ("Oriens christ. ", II, 804) was not a bishop of Neve but of Nineve, and lived at the end of the seventh cen- tury ("Echos d'Orient", IV, 11). The Diocese of Neve is noticed in the "Notitiaepiscopatuum" of An- tioch in the sixth century ("Echos d'Orient", X, 145), and the city of Neve is referred to by George of Cyprus ("Descriptio orbis romani", ed. Gelzer, 54) in the next century. The "Revue biblique" pubhshed (III, 625) some Greek inscriptions from the locality. A large Mussulman village called Nawa, in the Hau- ran, now 03cupies the site of this former see and the tower of the ancient Christian church is still visible. Neve must not be confounded with Mount Nebo, situ- ated about 94 miles south of the town.

S. Vailh£.

Neve, Fei-ix-Jean-Baptiste-Joseph, orientalist and philologist, b. at Ath, Belgium, 13 June, 1816; d. at Louvain, 23 May, 1893. His parents were devout Catholics. Graduated with distinction from the Catholic college of Lille, Neve completed a course of academic studies at the University of Louvain, obtain- ing in 1838 the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy and Letters. His pronounced taste for classical and ori- ental languages led him to pursue higher studies under some of the most distinguished scholars of Europe, Professors Lassen of Bonn, Tiersch of Munich, and Burnouf of Paris. He became acquainted with many oriental scholars, some of them already famous, others destined like himself to win fame in after years. Among these were Muir, Wilson, A. Weber, Kuhn, Max Miiller, and the distinguished orientalist and Catholic priest, Dr. Windischmann.

In 1841 Neve was appointed to the chair of Greek and Latin Literature in the University of Louvain, and whileteaching the classics, gave a course of studies in the Sanskrit language and literature. This work he kept up with unsparing energy and marked success for thirty-six years, at the same time making known the results of his studies in books and in articles con- tributed to the "Journal Asiatique", "Annates de Philosophic Chrc^tienne ", " Correspondant ", and other periodicals. When in 1877 he was released from his arduous duties with the title of professor emeritus, his industry continued unabated, and for the next fifteen^ years a series of publications came from his pen. He was a member of the Asiatic Society of Paris, the Asiatic Society of London, the Royal Academy of Belgium, and was a Knight of the Order of Leopold.

To N^ve belongs the honour of giving the first im- petus to the cultivation of San.skrit studies in Bel- gium. The most important of his numerous publica- tions in this field are: (1) hi,s translation of selected hymns from the Rig-Veda, " Etudes sur Ics hymnes du Rig-Veda, avec un choix d'hymnes traduits pour le premier fois en frangais" (Louvain, 1842); (2) his fine study of the ancient Brahmin cult of the Rib- hanas, "Essai sur le mythe dcs Ribhanas . . . avec le texte Sanskrit et la traduction frangaise dcs hymnes