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NEW HEBRIDES


7S9


NEWHOUSE


state; also by ministers out of the state, commissioned by the governor to be legally authorized officers. Children born before marriage and duly acknowledged thereafter are deemed legitimate. The legitimacy of the children is not to be affected by decree of divorce unless so expressed in the decree. If one of the parties thereto believed they were lawfully married and the marriage was consummated, it is valid, al- though before a supposed but not actual justice or minister, or under an informal or defective certificate of intention. The causes for legal divorce are im- potency, adultery, extreme cruelty, conviction of crime entailing over a year's imprisonment; treatment seri- ously injuring health or reason, habitual drunken- ness, refusal to cohabit or support for three years, re- fusal for six months, when conjoined with religious belief (Gen. Stat., Ch. 174). Where legal cause for divorce exists, all the objects of separation — non- access, non-interference with person and property, alimony, custody of children — can be obtained with- out a legal divorce, should the injured party so desire (Stat., 1909).

Prisons and Reformatories. — The rules of all prisons, houses of correction, or public charitable or reformatory institutions, shall provide for suitable re- ligious instruction and ministration to the inmates. These are to have freedom of religious belief and wor- ship, but may not interfere with proper discipline. Wills and Testaments. — Every person of twenty- one years of age, and sound mind (married women in- cluded), may dispose of any right in property by will in writing, signed by the testator and subscribed in his presence by three credible witnesses. No seal is required. Husband or wife may waive the provisions of a will and take the share allowed them respectively by law.

Charitable Bequests. — These are governed by the principles of the common law. The courts will ortler them to be executed according to the true intent and will let no trust lapse for want of a trustee (2 N. H., 21-55; N. H., 463^70—36; N. H., 1.39).

The following is a rough estimate of the nationality of the Catholic population of the diocese:

French Canadians 66,200

Irish 52,2.50

Poles 5,000

Lithuanians 1,500

Ruthenians 750

As reported in 1906 the membership of the principal non-Catholic denominations is as follows:

Congregationalists 19,070

Mclliodists 12,529

Hapti.sts 9,741

Free Baptists 6,210

Unitarians 3,629

Universalists 1,993

Advent Christians 1,608

Christians 1,303

Presbyterians 842

Chas. a. O'Connor.

New Hebrides, Vicariate Apo.stolic of, in Oceania, comprises the New Hebrides, with Banks and Torres, islands situated between 13° and 21° S. lat. and between 166° and 170° E. long. The total area is about 580 sq. miles. The indigenous population, which has decreased con.siderably, amounts to about 75,000; they are for the most part of an olive or brown complexion, varying in darkness. Their languages, which are very numerous, belong to the Malay stock and their religious worship has for its object the souls of the dead, but they also recognize a higher Bemg who is good. The white population is about 1000, nearly 650 of whom are French, and 300 English. The islands belong jointly to France and Great Brit- ain under what is known as the "Condominium of the New Hebrides". They were discovered in 1606 by


the Spaniards under Quiros, and were named Tierra Austral del S. Espiritu. In 1768 the French naviga- tor, Bougainville, in sailing round the globe, came upon the same group and named them the Grandes Cyclades. Six years later. Cook discovered the is- lands and gave them their present name. According to the account of Quiros, the Franciscans, who acted as chaplains to his ships, celebrated Mass several times in a chapel built on the shore, and even held a procession of the Blessed Sacrament. Nevertheless, the islands had to wait long for the preaching of Cath- olic missionaries. Not until January, 1887, did four Marist priests, sent by Mgr Fraysse, Vicar Apostolic of New Caledonia, definitively estabhsh here the first missions, and they did it amid great difficulties. The mi.ssions, however, developed rapidly, and in 1900, at the petition of Mgr. Fraysse, the New Hebrides were separated from his jurisdiction and made a pre- fecture Apostolic, under Pere Doucer*?, of the Society of Mary. In 1904 this mission became a vicariate Apostolic, and Pere Doucere, as vicar Apostolic, was consecrated titular Bishop of Terenuthis. His resi- dence is at Port-Vila. The staff of the mission now comprises 26 priests and 3 lay brothers of the Lyons Society of Mary. Their labours are seconded by 16 religious women of the regular Third Order of Mary, and a certain number of native catechists. There are 20 missionary residences, besides numerous annexes. Each mission has its schools. Near the episcopal residence it, established a training-school for native catechists. Religious instruction and education for white children are secured by two schools at Port- Vila: a school for boys, conducted by the Little Brothers of Mary; one for girls, under the sisters of the mission who also serve the hospital at Port-Vila and conduct at Mallicolo a creche for little orphans. Con- versions from paganism progress slowly, but con- tinuously. The native Catholics, now numbering rather more than one thousand, are well instructed and faithful to their religious duties. There are about 600 white Catholics, and this number is increasing rapidly, both by births and by immigration.

P. Dodcer£.

Newhouse, Abbey of, near Brockel.sby, Lincoln, the first- Premonstratensian abbey in England, was founded in 1143 by Peter de Gousei, with the consent of liis lord, Hugh de Bayeux, and the approbation of Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, with a colony from Liegues Abbey near Calais, France, then under the rule of AbbotHenry. On their arrival in iMigland the White Canons were hospitably receivrd by William, Earl of Lincoln, who confirmed the donaliuiis made to Gelro, the first Abbot of Newhouse, by Peter de Gousei the founder, by Ralph de Halton, and Geoffrey de Tours. The abbey was built in honour of Our Lady and St. Martial, Bishop of Limoges. In time Newhouse be- came tlir parent house of eleven of the Premonstraten- sian liou.scs in England. The seal of Newhouse repre- sents an abbot at full length with his crozier and the inscription: Higill. convenlus Sri Mtirrialis. Ep. I A. de Newhouse. Of this abbey wliicli was granted (30 Henry VIII) to Charles, Duke of Suffolk, parts only of the old foundations still remain. The names of twenty-six abbots are known, the last being Thomas Hariiham, who was abbot from 1534 to the suppression of the :ilil)(V l,y Henry VIII. The following list gives in :d|ilKil}el ii'al order the names and the dates of foun- datious of the Premonstratensian, or Norbertine, abbeys, made from the Abbey of Newhouse and ex- isting in England at the time of the Reformation: Alnwick, Northumberland, this was the first founda- tion made from Newhouse (1147) ; Barlings, near Lincoln (1154); Bileigh, near Maldon, Essex (1180); Coverham, Yorkshire (originally establi.shed at Swainby, 1190); Croxton^, near Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire (1162); Dale, Derbyshire (1162); St.