Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 13.djvu/207

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in 1650 remodelled it. It is notable for its landscapes by Poussin. Under the more modern church is the old church of St. Silvester, with remains of mosaics, frescoes, etc. Our Lady of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (formerly S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli), in the Piazza Navona, belongs to the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart, who have an apostolic school there. S. Onofrio on the Janiculum, Hieronymites, was built in 1439 by the de Cupis family and Nicold da Forca Palena. The frescoes of the portico are by Domeni- chino, three scenes from the life of St. Jerome; within are frescoes by Baldassarre Peruzzi, and the tombs of Cardinal Mezzofanti and the poet Tasso, who died in the convent, where his cell contains a small museum of objects that belonged to him. S. Pancrazio fuori le Mura was built by Pope Symmachus (c. 504) near the Coemeterium Calepodii; in 1849 it was wrecked by the Garibaldians; the government caused it to be freshly decorated. Near .S'. Pancrazio degli Scolopii is the generalate of the Piarist8(«S'co/opii) . S. Paolo alle Tre Fontaiic belongs to the Trappists, who have put the; surrounding land under cultivation The abbey contains three churches. The oldest, .S.S. Vincenzo e Aruislasio, founded by Honorius I, came into the hands of Greek monks; Innocent II restored and assigned it, with the abbey, to the; Cistercians. There is a fine cloister adjacent to this church, the earliest example of its kind. S. Maria Scala Cceli, ninth centuiy, was rebuilt in 1590 by Giacomo della Porta, and contains a mosaic by P'rancesco Zucca.

  • S. Paolo alle Tre Fontana was built by the same

Giacomo della Porta (1599) on the three springs which appeared, as the legend says, on the three places successively touched by the head of St. Paul, who was beheaded here. The springs, however, existed before St. Paul's martyrdom as the Aqua} Salviie, and in 1869 some ancient mosaic pavements were dug up here. S. Pietro in Montorio, Friars Minor, was in earlier days known as S. Maria in Castro Aureo, and had connected with it a monastery which passed into the hands of various orders until, in 1472, it was given to the Franciscans for the train- ing of subjects for the foreign missions. Ferdinand the Catholic had the church and convent rebuilt, and they were dedicated to St. Peter, following a belief which had gained acceptance owing to a some- what unfortunate conjecture hazarded by Maffeo Vegio, and which is even yet keenly debated. The rose-window of the fagade is very fine, and there are frescoes and other paintings by Sebastiano del Piombo (the Flagellation), Vasari, Daniele da Volterra, Baluren (the Entombment), and others; Raphael's Transfiguration is on the high altar, and there is a beautiful balustrade. Here, too, are the tombs of Cardinals Fabiano and Antonio del Monte (Ammannati), and of Giuliano, Archbishop of Ragusa (Dosio). In the courtyard of the convent, on the spot where St. Peter is supposed by some to have been crucified, stands Bramante's tempietto, the most graceful work of that genius. A splendid view of Rome may be had from the piazza in front of the church. It was the titular church of Paul Cardinal Cullen, Archbishop of Dublin.

S. Pietro in Vincoli, Canons Regular of St. John Lateran, (>xisted as the titulus Apostolorum as early as 431. Sixtus III made alterations in the church with funds given him by the Empress Eudoxia, who also presented the Jerusalem chain of St. Peter together with his Roman chain. These relics had been venerated here long before Sixtus III, but the title, a vinculis S. Petri, occurs for the first time only in 530. FiUngs from the chains were given as relics— like taken to Spoleto by Bishop Achilles in 419. The chains themselves are kept in a precious reliquary attributed to PoUaiulo. The church was restored by Sixtus IV and Juhus II. Its twenty monolithic col- umns are antique, and it contains pictures by Guer-

cino and Domenichino (The Deliverance of St. Peter), a mosaic (St. Sebastian) of about the year 680, and the tombs of Julius II, with the celebrated statue of Moses, and of Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa, with a portrait in relief. In the adjoining monastery the scuola di applicazione of the Engineers is established. S. Prassede, Vallombrosans, was built by Paschal II (822) at some distance from the older S. Prassede, which, then in ruins, was restored by Nicholas V and St. Charles Borromeo. Its twenty-two antique col- umns are still standing, and there are interesting mosaics of the ninth century (the chapel of St. Zeno and the apse) and the thirteenth century (the crypt). In the crypt are antique sarcophagi with the relics of Sts. Pra.xedes, Pudentiana, and others, and Paschal caused the bones of 2300 (?) martyrs, brought by hira from the catacombs, to be laid in an enclosed cem- eterj'. There are pictures by Giulio Romano, Federico Zuccaro, and the Cavaliere d'Arpino. Santi Quaranta in Trastevere belongs to the Spanish Franciscans. Santi Quattro Coronati, Capuchins, was the Titulus /Emiliance as early as the fourth century, and is dedicated to four soldiers (cornicularii) who were martyred on the Via Labicana, with whom were afterwards associated five martyrs, stonecutters of Pannonia. Honorius built a vast basilica, which, how- ever. Paschal II reduced to the proportions of what had been the nave. There are remains of the older basilica in the two atria and, in the church, frescoes by Giovanni Manozzi and a ciborium by Capponi (1493). Annexed to this church is the chapel of the Corporation of Stonecutters, with pictures of the thirteenth century. The Augustinian Sisters have a refuge for young women adjoining the church. S. SabinaaW Aventino, Dominicans, built under Clement I by the lUyrian priest Petrus (424), is remark- able for a half-door decorated with wood-carving of the fifth centur>', while its columns of Parian marble were taken from the temple of Diana on the Aventine. In the apse and above the door are mo- saics, and the picture by Sassoferrato (the Madonna of the Rosar>') is famous. In the adjoining convent, formerly the Savelli palace, are shown the cells of St. Dominic and St. Pius V.

S. Salvatore della Scala Santa, Passionists, contains, according to the legend, the stairs of Pilate's prajtor- ium, which were bathed with the Blood of Christ, but of which there is no mention earlier than 845. By these stairs, which were restored by Nicholas III and by Cosmas II, pilgrims ascend on their knees (ginocchioni) to tlie Capjjella Sancta Sanctorum, in which the most famous relics of the pontifical palace of the Lateran are preserved (see Scala Sancta). There is a ninth-century mosaic picture and a very ancient picture of the Saviour, on cedarwood, believed to have been made not by human hands. S. Silvestro in Capite, Pallottini (see Pious Society of Missions), built by Paul I (761) in his paternal home, was given to some Greek monks and subsequently passed into the possession of various orders. It was restored by Domenico de Rossi in 1681, and has a high altar by Rinaldo. This is, in a sense, the national church of the English Catholics. Its monastery has now become the Postal Department. S. Stefano degli Abissini, Trinitarians, with an interesting doorway, was erected by St. Leo the Great, and was one of the churches surrounding the Basilica of St. Peter's. S. Stefano del Cacco, Sylvestrines, was erected by Honorius I (630) on the ruins of the temple of Isis, of which it contains twelve columns. S. Teresa, with the generalate of the Discalced Carmelites, in the Lombard style, is one of the recently erected churches (1900). Santissima Trinitd, in the Via Condotti, Dominicans of the Philippines Province, was erected in the sixteenth century, and has fine pictures on its altars. Santissima Trinita in the Via della Missione belongs to the Lazarists, who have a house of retreat