till the latter part of the fifteenth century an Irish community under native superiors despite the Nor- man castle built within their fields in 1268 and the policy of ousting the Irish from their monas- teries. During the great Western Schism, Thomas Macheugan (Mac Aodhagain) whom the antipope Clement VII made prior of this house, came from Avignon as Clement's agent, and convening the prelates, clergy, and laity of Connaught at Roscom- mon, secured the adhesion of all except the Bishop of Elphin, who did not attend, and the Bishop of Killala, who sent his archdeacon to uphold the right of Urban VI. When the O'Conors made terms with Queen Elizabeth, the abbey and its possessions were attached to the constableship of Roscommon Castle, and subsequently granted to Sir Nicholas Malbie; even the site is scarcely traceable.
The Dominican friary that was situated at Ros- common was founded in the year 1253 by Fedh- limidh O'Conchubhair, King of Connaught, and consecrated to the Blessed Virgin in 1257; in 1265 the founder ended his stormy life within its walls, and was buried there. His monument, still extant, represents him recumbent in long robes of peace and wearing a royal crown. In subsequent centuries this church was the chosen burial-place of several of his and other princely families. After the confiscation this friary, like the house of Augustinian Canons, was first attached to the constableship of Roscommon, and then granted to Malbie; but the friars lingered around the spot. Under Cromwell several of them, amongst whom O'Heyne mentions Donald O'Neagh- ten, Edmund O'Bern, Raymund MacEochaidh, and Bernard O'Kelly, were put to death. Afterwards they obtained a small house and land and as.sombled a community numbering sixteen in 1791; but it died out in 1844. Of the original buildings only ruins of the church remain. The Franciscans also had a convent at Roscommon for a brief period; founded in 1269, it was burned down in 1270, and on account of the founder's death never rebuilt.
Archdall, Monaaticon Hibernicum (Dublin, 1786); Lanioan, Eccles. Hist, of Ireland (Dublin, 1829) ; Ware, De Scriploribus HibernioB (Dublin, 1639) ; Ussher, Brilannicarum Ecclesiarum Anliquitates in Works (Dublin, 1847); O'Heyne, Irish Dominicans ed. CoLEMA>f (Dundalk, 1902) ; De Burqo, Ilibernia Dominicana (Cologne, 1762); Weld, Statistical Survey of Co. Roscommon (Dublin, 1832).
Rose, The Golden. See Golden Rose.
Rosea, a titular see. The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of Rosea in Syria. The title is borne at present by Mgr Felix Jourdan de la Passardiere, of the Oratory of France, who lives in Paris. The name Rosea being only a corruption of Rhosus was replaced by the latter in 1884 (see Rhosus).
Roseau, Diocese of (Rosensis), suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B. W. I. The different isl- ands of the Carribean Sea, which constitute the Dio- cese of Roseau, belonged to the Vicariate Apostolic of Port of Spain up to 1850, when Pius IX by Brief of 30 April, 1850, erected the Diocese of Roseau, with the episcopal see at Roseau, the capital of Dominica. The Very Reverend Father Michael Monaghan was elected first bishop of the new diocese and consecrated 16 February, 1851. He died in St. Thomas, 14 August, 1855, and was succeeded in 1856 by Rev. Father Michael Vesque, who died 10 August, 1859. The third bishop was Rene Marie Charles Poirier, C.J.M., who governed the diocese from 1859 to 1878. Next came Bishop Michael Naughten from 1880 till 4 July, 1900. The present occupant is Philip Schelfhaut, C.SS.R., b. at St. Nicholas, Belgium, 27 September, 1850, ordained priest 18
October, 1878, and consecrated bishop, 16 March, 1902. The diocese comprises the Islands of Do- minica, B. W. I., with 30,000 Cathohcs, 12 parishes, 18 priests, 16 churches, and 4 chapels; Montserrat, B. W. I., with 600 Catholics, 1 parish, 1 priest, 1 church; Antigua, B. W. I., with 400 Catholics, 1 parish, 1 priest, 1 church; St. Kitts, B. W. I., with 1500 Catho- lics, 1 parish, 2 priests, 1 church, 2 chapels; St. Croix, D. W. I., with 4100 Catholics, 2 parishes, 4 priests, 2 churches, 1 chapel; St. Thomas, D. W. I., with 3000 Catholics, 1 parish, 3 priests, 1 church, 1 chapel. The total Protestant population of the diocese is about 100,000. In the smaller British Islands of Nevis, Anguilla, Barbuda, Sombrero, and in the Virgin Islands, Tostola, Anegada, and Virgin Gorda, as also in the Danish Island of St. John, the Catholic Church has so few adherents that no priest has ever been resident there. With the exception of two parishes, which are served by secular priests, the whole diocese is under the care of the Redemp- torist Fathers of the Belgian province, and the Fathers of Mary Immaculate (Chavagne en Paillers, France). There are also 14 Redemptorist Brothers on the mission. In Roseau, the Religious of the Faithful Virgin devote themselves to the education of the girls of both the lower and higher classes, while the Ladies of the Union of the Sacred Hearts conduct a high school for girls in St. Thomas. In Dominica nearly all the schools are in the hands of the local Government; however, religious instruction is given by the priests during school hours. In the other islands, with the exception of Antigua, parochial schools are attached to the mission.
Ecclesiastical Bulletin of Roseau (Roseau, 1908-9) , MSS.
Rosecrans, William Starke, b. at Kingston, Ohio, U. S. A., 6 Sept., 1819; d. near Redondo, California, 11 March, 1898. The family came orig- inally from Holland and settled in Pennsylvania, moving thence to Ohio. His mother was a daughter of Samuel Hop- kins, a soldier of the Revolution and one of the signers of the D(>c- laration of Inde- pendence. Ill' graduated at tln' U. S. Military Academy, West Point, in July, 1842, and after a brief service in the engineer corps re- turned to the Academy as a pro- fessor, remaining there until 1847. It was during this period that he be- came a Catholic. In 1854 he resigned from the army, but at the breaking out of the CivilWar he was made a colonel of volunteers, and, in June, 1861, a brigadier-general of regulars. During the succeeding years he held various important commands in West Virginia, Mississippi, and Ten- nessee, until 19 and 20 Sept., 1863, when he was de- feated by Gen. Bragg, at the battle of Chickamauga. Then after a short period of service in the depart- ment of Missouri he was relieved of all command. Up to this he had been uniformly successful as a good fighter and military strategist. At the close of the war he resigned from the army and, in 1868, served as U. S. Minister to Mexico, where from 1869 to 1881 he devoted himself to railroad and industrial enterprises. He was elected to Congress as a Demo-
AM Starke Rosecr.a From a Photograph