Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 13.djvu/230

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crat, in 1880, and again in 18S2. From 1885 to 1893 he was registrar of the XT. S. Treasury. In 1889 Con- gress; restorecl him to the rank and pay of a brigadier- general of the regular army on the retired list.

His brother, Sylvester' Horton Rosecrans, first Bishop of Columbus, w:is also a convert, liorn at Homer, Ohio, 5 Feb., 1827, he was sent to Kenyon College, the leading Episcopalian institution of the state. While there in 1S45 he received a letter from his brother WiUiam, then a professior at West Point, announcing his conversion to the Catholic Faith. It so impressed him that he also sought instruction and became a Catholic. He then went to St. John's College, Fordham, New York, graduating there in 1846. Electing to study for the priesthood he was sent by the Bishop of Cincinnati as a student to the College of Propaganda, Rome, where he was ordained priest in 1852. Returning to Concinnati he officiated at St. Thomas's church, and was a professor in the diocesan seminar\\ In 1859 a college was opened in connexion with the seminar>' and he was made its president. In 1S62 he was consecrated titular Bishop of Pompeiopolis and Auxiliary of Cincinnati. When the Diocese of Columbus was created, 3 March, 1868, he was transferred to that see as its first bishop and died there 21 October, 1878 (see Columbus, Diocese of). During his residence in Cincinnati he was a frequent editorial contributor to the "Catholic Telegraph".

CuLLUM, Biog. Register of the Officers and Graduates, U. S. Military Academy (Boston, 1891); Hocck, A Hist, of Catholicity in Northern Ohio (Cleveland, 1902); Am. Cath. Hist. Researches (Philadelphia, July, 1896); The Catholic Telegraph (Cincinnati), files; Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1900); BicKHORN, Rosecrans' Campaign with the Fourteenth Armory Corps (Cincinnati, 1863); Clarke, Lives of the Deceased Bishops of Cath. Ch. U. S., Ill (New York, 1888); The Catholic Directory, files. _ „ ,,

Thomas F. Meehan.

Roseline (Rossolina), Saint, b. at the Chateau of Arcs in eastern Provence, 1263; d. 17 January, 1329. Having overcome her father's opposition Rosehne became a Carthusian nun at Bertaud in the Alps of Dauphine. Her "consecration" took place in 1288, and about 1300 she succeeded her aunt. Blessed Jeanne or Diane de Villeneuve, as Prioress of Celle-Pvobaud in the Diocese of Fr6jus near her home. In 1320 her brother Helion, Grand Master (1319-46) of the Knights of St. John, restored the monastery, and in 1323 and 1328 John XXII, formerly BLshop of Fr6jus, increased its revenue, granting indulgences for the anniversary of the dedication of the church. Roseline obtained leave to resign her office before her death. Many vi-sions together with extraor- dinar>' austerities and great power over demons are ascribed to her. Her feast is given in the Acta SS. on 11 June, the day of the first translation of her remains in 1334 by her brother Elzear, Bi.shop of Digne; but by the Carthusian Order it is celebrated on 16 Oct/jber. There has always been a local cultus and this was confirmed for the Diocese of Fr6juH by a Decree of 1851, for the Carthu.sian Order in 1857. The saint is usually represented with a reliquary containing two eyes, recalling the fact that her eyfis were removed and preserved aj^art. This relic was still extant at Arcs in 1882. 'lliere is no ancient life of the saint, but that given in the Acta •SS., 2 June, 489 sq., was constructed by Papebroch from ancient documents.

Lb CoiTKii-x, AnTifitei Ord. Cnrtus., IV, V (Montreuil. 1888- S9r, .Moi.is. Ilixt'/rui Carlun., I.

Raymond Webster.

Rosenau Hiing., Rozkny^), Diocese of (Rorna- viENSJs), in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, established by Maria Theresa, in 177.5-76. In 1636 Cardinal Peter Pdzmdny pror)Osed to establish a distinct set; for this part of Ilungary, where the Catholic Faith was almost dea<l. Pdzmdny's death intorvened, and


nothing was done until Maria Theresa took up the l)lan. In 1776 John C»alg6czy was appointed first Bishop of Rosenau, but died before taking charge. His successor. Count Anthony Revaj^ (1776-80), caused the church to be restored and the high altar to be renovated. Of his successors may be mentioned : John Scitovszky (1S27-3S), later Bishop of Fiinf- kirchen and Archbi.shop of Gran; Ethelbert Barta- kovics (184.5-.'30), later Archbishop of Eger. Since 1905 the see is governcul by Louis Balds. The diocese is divideil into 3 arclidoaconries and has 2 abbeys and 3 provostships. The chapter consists of 6 active members and 6 titular canons. The ))arishes number 99, and there are 154 secular, 28 regular, priests; 3 monasteries; 34 nunneries; 190,000 Catholics; 10,165 Greek Uniats; 97,071 Lutherans; 44,609 Cal- vinists; 11,220 Jews. The seminary was established in 1814.

A katolikus Magyarorszdg (Catholic Hungary) (Budapest, 1902), in Hungarian; Schematismus (1910).

A. AldXsy.

Rose of Lima, Saint, virgin, patroness of America, b. at Lima, Peru, 20 April, 1586; d. there 30 August, 1617. At her confirmation in 1597, she took the name of Rose, because, when an infant, her face had been seen transformed by a mystical rose. As a child she was remarkable for a great reverence, and pronounced love, for all things relating to God. This so took possession of her, that thenceforth her life was given up to prayer and mortification. She had an intense devotion to the Infant Jesus and His Blessed Mother, before whose altar she spent hours. She was scru- pulously obedient and of untiring industry, making rapid progress by earnest attention to her parents' instruction, to her studies, and to her domestic work, especially with her needle. After reading of St. Catherine she determined to take that saint as her model. She began by fasting three times a week, adding secret severe penances, and when her vanity was assailed, cutting off her beautiful hair, wearing coarse clothing, and roughening her hands with toil. All this time she had to struggle against the objections of her friends, the ridicule of her family, and the censure of her parents. Many hours were spent before the Blessed Sacrament, which she received daily. Finally she determined to take a vow of virginity, and inspired by supernatural love, adopted extraor- dinary means to fulfill it. At the outset she had to combat the opposition of her parents, who wished her to marry. For ten years th(> struggle c'ontinued before she won, by patience and j)ray('r, their consent to con- tinue her mission. At the .same time great tempta- tions assailed her purity, faith, and constancy, causing her excruciating agony of mind and desolation of spirit, urging her to more fre(]ucrif iiiortificatious; but daily, also. Our Lord iiiaiiifcslcd Ilimsclf, fortifying her with the knowledge of His presence and consoling her mind with evidence of His Divine love. Fa.sting daily was soon followed by perpetual abstinence from meat, and that, in turn, by use of only the coarsest food and just sufficient to support life. Her days were filled with acts of charity and industry, her exquisite lace and embroidery helping to support her home, while her nights were devoted to prayer and penance. When her work permitted, she n^tinnl to a little grotto whieh .she had built, with her brother's aid, in their small garden, and there pa,ssed her nights in solitude and prayer. Overcoming the opposition of her par- ents, and with the consent of her confessor, she was allowed later to become practically a recluse in this cell, save for her visits to the Blessed Sacrament. In her twentieth year she received the habit of St. Dominic. Thereafter she rerloubled the severity and variety of her penances to an heroic degree, wearing constantly a metal si)iked crown, concealed by roses, and an iron chain about her waist. Days passed with-