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gregation, Bishop of Tricarico 1903, Archbishop of stetten 186&-1908. Athanasius Logerot (b. 1840; Acerenza and Matera, 1907. Beda Cardinale (b. d. 1908), of the Gallican Congregation, Ihrior Of 1869), of the Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Kereonan. Dominic Machado (b. 1824; d. 1908), Observance, Abbot of Praglia 1905, Bishop of Civita- of the Beuronese Congregation, named Abbot of vecchia and Corneto 1907, titular Archbishop of Bahia in 1896 at the restoration of the Brazilian Laodicea and delegate Apostolic of Perugia 1910. Congregation, Superior General of the Brazilian Roxnanus Bilsborrow (b. 1862), of the English Con- Congregation in 1900, and Abbot of Rio de Janeiro 0regation, Bishop of Port Louis 1911, Archbishop of 1903. Benedict Sauter (b. 1835; d. 1908), of the' Cardiff 1916, resigned 1920, titular Archbishop of Beuronese Congregation, Abbot of Emmatis Cius, now at Douai Abbey. Maurus Caruana (b. (Prague). Placid Wolter (b. 1828; d. 1908), of the 1867), of the English Congregation, Archbishop of Beuronese Congregation, Abbot of Msiredsous 1878, Malta 1915. Gregorio Grasso (b. 1869), of the Archabbot of Beuron and Abbot President of the Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Observance, Congregation 1890. Boniface Marie Krug (b. 1838; Abbot of Praglia 1907, Abbot of Monte Vergine d. 1909), of the Cassinese Congregation. Prior of 1908, Archbishop of Salerno 1915. Leo Haid (b. Monte Cassino 1874, Abbot of Cesena 1888, Abbot 1849), of the American Cassinese Congregation, President of the Cassinese Congregation 1895, Arch- Abbot of Belmont 1885, Vicar Apostolic of North abbot of Monte Cassino 1897. Alexander Karl Carolina 1887, and titular Bishop of Mcssene 1888. (d. 1909), of the Austrian Congregation of the Medard Kohl (b. 1859), of the Himgarian Congre- Immaculate Conception, Abbot of Melk 1875-1909. gation, titular Bishop of Samosata and Auxiliary Remigio Guido Barbieri (b. 1836; d. 1910), of the of Esztergom 1900. Leo de Mergel (b. 1847), of the Cassinese Congregation, Abbot of Perugia 1897, Bavarian Congregation, Abbot of Metten 1898, titular Bishop of Theodosiopolis 1901, and Vicar Bishop of Eichstatt 1905. Gerard van Caloen (b. Apostolic of Gibraltar. Hippolyte Feher (b. 1842; 1853), of the Brazilian Congregation, Abbot of Rio d. 1910), Abbot President of the Hungarian Con- de Janeiro 1905, titular Bishop of Phocsea 1906, gregation and Archabbot Nullius of Monte Pan- Archabbot of the Brazilian Congregation 1908, re- nonia 1892, honorary member of the Academy of signed 1915, now at the Abbey of St. Andrew, Sciences, doctor of theology at Budapest, vice- Bruges. Thomas Spreiter (b. 1865), of the Ottilien president of the Council of Public Instruction, and Congregation, Vicar Apostolic of Dar-es-Salaam and royal councilor. Ildephonse Bertran (b. 1827; d. titular Bishop of Thaenae 1906. Vincent Wehrle 1911), of the Cassinese Congregation of Primitive (b. 1855), of the Swiss-Amcridkn Congregation, Observance, vicar general and prior of the Abbey Abbot of Richardton 1903, Bishop of Bismarck 1910. Nullius of New Norcia. Joseph Bourigaud (b. 1821 ; Henry Gregory Thompson (b. 1871), of the Cas- d. 1911), of the Gallican Congregation, Abbot of sinese Congregation of Primitive Observance, Bishop Liguge 1876, resigned 1906. Bede Coppert (b. 1882; of Gibraltar 1910. Boniface Sauer (b. 1877), of the d. 1911), of the Brazilian Congregation, zealous Ottilien Congregation, Abbot of Seoul 1915, Vicar worker in the territory of Rio Branco. Achariua Apostolic of Ouen-San 1920, and titular Bishop of Demuynch (b. 1878; d. 1911), of the Brazihan Con- AppiarialSQl. FidehsdeStotzingen, Abbot Primate eregation, vicar general of the prelature nullius of of the Order (see above). Maurus Maria Serafini Montserrat (Rio de Janeiro). Peter August O'Neill (b. 1859), Abbot of Parma 1896, Abbot General of (b. 1841; d. 1911), of the Enghsh Congregation, the Cassinese Con^egation of Primitive Observance Bishop of Port Louis 1896, resigned and trani^enred 1900-20, Consultor of the Sacred Congregations of to the titular Bishopric of Isionda 1909. Pedro the Propagation of the Faith, for Eastern Affairs, Rueda (b. 1844; d. 1911), of the Cassinese Congre- and Rites, and Secretaiy of the Sacred Congrega- gation of Primitive Obser\'ance, Abbot of Samoa lion of Rehgious. David Oswald Hunter-Blair (b. 1893. Vittore-Maria Corvaia (b. 1845; d. 1913), of 1853), of the English Congregation, author, Abbot the Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Observance, of Fort Augustus 1913, resigned 1917, titular Abbot coadjutor of the Abbot Nullius of Monte Vergine of Abingdon. The abbots nullius are as follows: 1879, Abbot Nullius 1884, resigned 1908, titular Gregory Diamare, of Monte Cassino; Ildephonse Bishop of Tripoli 1909. Hildebrand de Hemptinne Schuster, of St. Paul-without-the-Walls ; Remigius (b. 1849; d. 1913), of the (Congregation of Beuron, Bardos, of Monte Paimonia; Placide Nicolini, of Abbot of Maredsous 1890, Abbot Primate of the Trinitk di Cava; Rarairus Marcone, of Monte Ver- Benedictine Order 1893-1913. Albert Noel (b. 1830; gine; Anselm (I^atalan, of New Norcia; Thomas d. 1913), of the Gallican Congregation, librarian of Boasart, of Einsiedeln ; Peter Eggerath, of Rio de Solesmes and Clair\'aux. Fulgence Torr^ (b. 1861 ; Janeiro; Leo Haid, of Belmont; Laurence Salvi, of d. 1914), of the Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Subiaco; Michael Ott, of Muenster. The abbots Observance, Administrator Apostolic of New Norcia presidents are given under each congregation. The 1901, elected abbot 1902, titular Bishop of Dory- prefeots apostolic are : John de Hemptinne, of Iseum 1910, administrator of the Vicariate Apostolic Katanga; Ildephonse Lanslots, of Transvaal; Willi- of Kimberley. Leoni Allodi (b. 1841; d. 1914), of brord Lay, of Lindi. the Cassinese Congregation of Bishops and Regu-

Among noted Benedictines deceased since the lars, titular Abbot of Subiaco 1910, author of mon- year 19()6 are: Stefano Gerbino di Cannitello (b. astic works, distinguished Hellenist. Frangois 1834; d. 1907), of Monte Cassino, Bishop of Trapani Buchot (b. 1835; d. 1913), of the Gallican Congre- 1895. Benedict Pascuttini (b. 1819; d. 1907), monk gation, master of lay brothers at Silos. Gilbert of Praglia. Wm. Benedict Scarisbrick (b. 1828; Dolan (b. 1853; d. 1914), monk of Downside, ac- d. 1908), of the English Congregation, Bishop of tively connected with the cause of the English Port Louis 1871, resigned 1888, titular Archbishop martyrs, with the Catholic Record and Catholic of Cyzicus. Silvano de Steffano (b. 1835; d. 1908), Truth Societies, author of historical, archaeological, of the Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Obser- and architectural articles. Marius Ferotin (b. 1855; vance. Abbot of Trinita di Cava 1902. Benedict d. 1914), monk of Famborough, liturgical and his- Bellandi (b. 1835) d. 1908), of the Cassinese Con- torical writer. Paul Vannier (d. 1914), of the gregation. Abbot of Florence. Frangois Chamard Gallican Congregation, Prior of St. Benedict of the (b. 1828: d. 1908), of the Gallican Congregation, Lake, Sherbrooke, Canada. Benedetto Bonazzi (b. author. Prior of Liguge. Dominic Hoenigl (d. 1908), 1840; d. 1915), of the Cassinese Congregation, of the Austrian Congr^'gation, Abbot of Senium- Abbot of Trinita di Cava 1894, Bishop of Bonevento