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1902. John Cuthbert Hedley (b. 1837: d. 1015), Gaiaser (b. 1853; d. 1910), of the Beuronese Con- monk of Ampleforth, titular Bishop of GieBaropolis gregation, prior of St. Aiidrew, at Bruges, 1912, and auxiliary Bishop of Mencvia 1873, Bishop of retired to Ettal in 1916, author of numerous litur- Newport 1881, editor of the Duhlin Review, gical works. Wolfgang Steinkogier (d. 1919), of author and distinguished preacher. Anselm Caplet the American Cassinese Congregation, prior of St. (b. 1836; d. 1916), of the Cassinese Congregation, Martin's at Lacey and one of the founders of the dean of Monte Cassino, compiler of the Index, poet, college of this monastery. Jean Bease (b. 1861 ; Mathieu Couturier (b. 1863; d. 1916), of the Gal- d. 1920), of the Gallican Congregation, founder of lican Congregation, sub-prior, and master of novices the "Bulletin de St. Martin," the "Revue Mabillon," at Liguge and Chevetogne. Lucien Fromage (b. "La Vie et Les Arts Liturgiques," and director of 1846; d. 1W6), monk of Solesmes, continuator of "LlJnivers" during the war, author of numerous Gu^ranger's "L#'Ann6e Liturgique." Joseph Rabory works, among them "Le Moine B^nedictin," "Les (b. 1843; d. 1916), monk of Solesmes, became a Moines d'Orient," "Le Monachisne Africain," Les secular priest at Tours, re-entered Benedictine life Moines de Tancienne France" (crowned by the in Spain, author of religious works. Omer Grauz French Academy). Augustin Gatard (b. 1861; d. (b. 1858; d. 1917), of the Gallican Congregation, 1920), of the Gallican Congregation, active in the Prior of Wisque (Oosterhout). Ildephonse Guepin restoration of plain chant, formed several Gregoriaa (b. 1836; d. 1917), of the Gallican Congregation, schools, author of a manual on Gregorian chant, of author. Abbot of Silos 1880, collaborator with Dom "La Musique Gregorienne," and several articles on Couturier in the drawing up of the new constitu- theolo^ and canon law, collaborator in the "Dic- tions of the Gallican Congregation, approved by tionnaire d'archeolo^ie et de liturgie" and other Rome. Jules-Marie Mellet (b. 1846; d. 1917), monk works. James Christopher Gauthey (b. 1833; d. of Solesmes, architect of numerous churches, and 1920), of the Gallican Congregation, of great learn- the Abbey of Solesmes. Edmond Schmidt (b. 1843; ing and sanctity, Abbot of Marseilles 1876, exiled d. 1916), monk of Metten, author of several works at Chiari. Peter Nugent (b. 1859; d. 1920), or- on the Benedictine rule. Domenico Serafini (b. dained priest in Baltimore 1882, professed Benedic- 1852; d. 1918), Abbot General of the Cassinese tine at EnUngton 1902, monk at Beuron, chaplain Congregation of Primitive Observance, ordained of English and American prisoners and of the 1877, master of novices 1882, then prior of Subiaco Indian troops during the recent war. Hugh Sprin- 1891, procurator general of the Congregation at ger (b. 1872; d. \920)f of the Austrian Congrega- Rome 1892, and consultor of the Congregation of tion. Abbot of Seitenstetten. Bishops and Regulars (until 1908), and the Con- Nuns. — It is difficult to give complete statistics gresation of the Holy Office, abbot general 1896, for the Benedictine nims as most of them are under Arcnbishop of Spoleto 1900, Apostolic delegate to the jurisdiction of individual bishops, and, unlike Mexico 1905, titiilar Bishop of Seleucia Pieria 1912, the monks, are not formed into congregations, consultor of the Propaganda and assessor of the There are thirteen monasteries under the jurisdic- Hol^ Office 1911, created cardinal 1914. Alphonse tion of Benedictine abbots. These, with the abbeys Ettinger (b. 1867; d. 1918), of the Cassinese Con- upon which they are dependent, are as follows: gre^tion, Abbot of Trinity di Cava 1910. Tiburtius Amelia (St. Paul-without-the-WaUs), Bertholdstein najdu (b. 1858; d. 1918), of the Hungarian Con- (Beuron), Casino (Monte C^ussino), Eibingen gregation, Archabbot Nullius of Monte Pannonia (Beuron), Einsiedein (Einsiedeln), Fahr (Einsie- 1910. Giovanni del Papa (b. 1850; d. 1918), of the deln), Fort Augustus (Fort Augustus), Habsthal Cassinese Congregation, Abbot of St. Paul-without- (Muri-Gries), Maredret (under the Abbot Primate), the-Walls 1904. Antoine du Bouig (b. 1838; d. Samen (Engelberg), Stanbrook (under the Abbot 1918), of the Gallican Congregation, prior of Our President of the English Congregation), Sao Paido Lady of Victory at Paris, author. Paul Denis (d. (Sao Paulo).

1918), of the Gallican Congregation, author of Certain monasteries may be grouped together ao- several works on the Congregation of St. Maur. cording to their work or foundation. Those devoted Jerome Hunt (b. 1844; d. 1918), missionary among to the perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament the Sioux Indians of North Dakota, translator of are: Amandola, Catania, Milan, Ronco di Ghiffa, the Bible into Sioux. Paulin Joumier (b. 1854; Sortino (Italy); Arechavaleta, Guemika, Onate, d. 1918), of the Gallican Congregation, Prior of Port-Bon (Spain); Atherstone, Colwich (England); Kergonan. Auguste de Meyer (d. 1918), of the Bayena, Csn, (Zfraon, Othmarsheim, Paris (two Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Observance, monasteries); Rosheim, Rouen (France); Clyde, Abbot of Affiigem. Paul Picard (b. 1848; d. 1918), Sturgis (United States); Driebergen, Huistenbosch, of the Gallican Congregation, ordained priest in Princenhage, Oldenzaal, Tegelen (Holland); En- Rouen 1872, professed Benedictine 1904, prior of denich, Hamikolt, Herstelle, Johannisber^, Kempen, the Abbey of St. Wandrille (Fontanelle). Do- Koln-Raderberg, Kreitz, Osnabriick, Tner, Varen- menico-Gaspare Lancia di Brolo (b. 1825; d. 1919), sell, Vinnenber^ (Germany); Glattburg (Switzeiw of the Cassinese Congregation, titular Bishop of land) ; Houpertmgen, Moignel6e, Oyghem les Des- Philadelphia and auxiliary of Palermo 1878, Arch- selghem (Belgium); Peppingen (Luxemburg); bishop of Monreale 1884, died at the venerable age Lemberg, Warsaw (Poland) ; St. Nicholas de of mnety-four, after an episcopate of thirty-five Port (religious driven into exile). The Benedictine years. Norbert Birt (b. 1861; d. 1919), monk of Nuns of Our Lady of Calvary, founded in 1618 by Downside, author of historical works, member of Mother Antonio of St. Scholastica, are under the the committee of the Catholic Truth Society and immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See and have the Council of the Catholic Record Society, houses at Angers, Jerusalem, La Capelle Marival, Gregory Danner (b. 1861; d. 1919), Abbot President Landemau, Machecoul, Orleans, Poiters, and Ven- of the Bavarian Congregation and Abbot of Munich dome (see Calvary, Congregation of Our Lady of). 1904. Bruno Destree (d. 1919), monk of Maredsous, The Benedictine Nuns of the Sacred Heart of Mary artist and writer. Bruno Doerfler (b. 1866; d. 1919), have five monasteries: Erbalunga, Jouarre, la of the American Cassinese Congregation, rector of Rochette, Pradines, and St. Jean d*Ang61y, The the University of St. John in Minnesota 1899, prior Sisters engaged in foreign missions are established of Muenster 1906, and first abbot 1911, vicar gen- at: Albay and Manila, in the Philippines; Dar-es- eral of the diocese of Prince Albert 1912. Hugo Salaam and Transvaal, in Africa; Olinda and Soro-