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BinLDiNas 133 bueabest

missions with churches, and 4 stations. Among the blessing may be imparted, contrary to the former

educational institutions are : 1 university with an practice, not only by bishops but by the priest who

attendance of 380, 3 colleges for men with an at- is reconciling the church.

tendance of 1,331, 1 college for women, 4 high If a church can no longer be used for Divine

schools with an attendance of 1,335, 12 academies service and cannot be restored, it may be put to

with an attendance of 2,520, and 1 training school profane but not sordid use by the local ordinary,

with an attendance of 174. There are 7 homes for who must thereupon transfer its revenue and

women and working girls, 5 orphan asylums^ 2 parochial title, ii it be a parish church, to another

foundling asylimis. 1 school for deaf mutes, 2 church.

rw^Z — ^Tii • 1 »# 7 — 1 Ti x:1 o — • 1 J au ent arcnoisnop is naymuna iNetznammer, u.o.u..

The Clencal Mutual Benefit Jociety and the y^^^ ^^ Erziigen, Baden, 19 January, 1862; pro-

Euchanstic League are estebli^ed for the clergy, ^^^ ^^ the Benedictine monastery at Einriedeln

Mid among the laity are. the Holy Name Society. -^ ^^^ ordained 1886, honorary Canon of Bukarest,

Kmghts of Columbus, Knights of St John Nation^ -^^ ^^ ^^^ seminary and Sector of the Grecian

Council of men and women Federation of Catholic College at Rome, elected archbishop 16 September,

Thf """r^K.J^n^T^.ri^^^ Twi^i*. fV,« .ffinial 1905, cousecrated at Rome in the monasteiy of St.

«®^f A^l^o^^*^-^^^ Anslem 6 November, 1905, enthroned 17 Decem-

organ of the diocese and is pubhshed every Thurs- ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ffi^^, ^/ ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ r^^_

^^' manian Crown 1 January, 1912.

BnHdings, Ecclesiastical (cf. C. E., Ill-lla). — The suffering resulting from the World War was Thb Chxtbch Fabric (cf. C. E., III-44; V-744). — extreme. The, Catholic schools were destroyed, Except in case of privilege or legitimate custom, among them those of the Hungarians, which still the oishop and cathedral chapter, the collegiate remain in ruins, many inhabitants were compelled chapter, and the rector are the administrators of to seek refuge elsewhere; priests were sent into the temporal property destined for the repairs and exile, and five who were forced to flee have not decorations and service expenses of the cathedral, yet effected a safe return. Among the recently collegiate church, and other churches respectively, deceased of note is Fr. Joseph D\Ester, director In some places certain other persons, lay or clerical, of the English Ladies, and for thirty years a are co-opted to assist in the administration; in such zealous laborer in the archdiocese (b. 1847; d. 1921). a case tney with the administrator or his delegate The Italian Catholics erected their own national as president constitute the church fabric council, chapel in the center of Bukarest in 1914, and dedi- The members of the council, unless otherwise legally cated it to the Infant Saviour. appointed, are named by the bishop or his delegate. The Catholic population of the archdiocese is and they may be removed by him for grave cause, about 70,000, witn the greater percentage Austrian As the coimcil is intended solely for the administra- and the rest either Hungarian, Italian, Polish, tion of the temporal property, it must in no way French or German. The archdiocesan year-book meddle in what belongs to the spiritual office, for for 1914 ^ives the cathedral chapter as composed of instance: the time and manner of ringing the bells, 2 canonries with existing vacancies, and 5 resident keeping order in the church or cemetery, the man- and 3 non-resident honorary canons. The secular ner of making collections, announcements, the ar- priests number 33, and regular priests 3 — Passionist, rangement of the altar, the location of the organ, Benedictine, Lazarist. There are 24 parishes with seats, offering boxes, the acceptance or refusal of 23 parish churches and 13 affiliated churches; an sacred furniture, or the compilation or custody of archiepiscopal seminary at Bukarest ; a college gym- books or documents belonging to the parochial nasium for Doys with 19 professors and 300 students ; archives. 2 archiepiscopal schools for boys at Bukarest with

Dbfilement and Reconciliation. — ^The sanctity a total of 18 Christian Brothers as teachers, 19 of a church is violated (C. E., III-43c) only by the lay teachers, and 1,123 students, of whom about following act^ which must be certain, notorious, and 500 are Catholics; 1 archiepiscopal school for boys must have been performed in the church: (a) the at Craiova with 226 students and 8 teachers, of crime of homicide; (b) the wilful and culpable whom 2 are priests and 4 are Christian Brothers; spilling of a considerable quantity of blood ; (c) the boarding school for boys attached to the archiepis- use of the church for impious or sordid purposes; copal school with 100 pupils; 2 elementary schools (d) burial of an infidel or of a person excom- in Bukarest with 455 pupils; and 10 elementary municated by a declaratory or condemnatory sen- schools elsewhere with 846 pupils. The English tence. A contiguous cementry is not affected by Ladies, numbering 254, have 2 convents in Bukarest, the defilement of a church and vice versa (can. and 1 each in Braila, Craiova, and Tum-Severin, 1172). If the defilement takes place before the with a boarding school for girls attached to each Canon of Mass which is being said, or after the foundation, totaling 1,366 pupils; they also con- Communion, the Mass is to be stopped; otherwise duct an orphanage with 20 children. The Dames the celebrant is to continue to the end of the Com- de Sion have 1 foundation in Bukarest with 47 sis- munion. A church which has been blessed may be ters, and boarding school attached with 318 pupils. reconciled by its rector or by any priest with his The Sisters of Mercy have 1 foundation in Bukares|i consent, at least presumed; but if it has been con- with 6 sisters, who have in charge an attached hos- %crated it is the duty of the ordinaiy or, in case pital. Among the clergy there is an organizatioil of exempt religious, of a higher superior, to secure for the care of infirm or aged priests, and also a the reconciliation; the rector may reconcile it only society of perpetual adoration. The Marian Con- in grave and urgent necessity, when it is impos- gregation for the young and adult of both sexes, sible to reach the ordinary, who in this case must an organization of Christian Mothers, and the Third be notified later. In reconciling a blessed church Order of St. Francis are established amon^ the ordinary holy water may be used; but in case of a laity. A daily Catholic publication called "Albina" conisecrated church the water must be blessed for is issued. The Government does not contribute to the purpose according to the liturgical laws; this the support of the Catholic institutions.