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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/164

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CAKABA 148 CAKADA

with instruction in English, and English-speaking The Naval Service of Canada, established by the teachers are not required to know French. The Naval Service Act of 1910, is divided into eight line of cleavage is very sharp in Quebec,* where branches : naval, fisheries, fisheries' protection, ra£o- English is tausnt in Protestant schools and French telegraphy, patrol of northern waters, tidal and in Catholic schools, although a confusing element current survey, hydrographic survey, and life-saving intervenes in the English-speaking Irish population service. At the outbreak of the war two submarines of Quebec and Montreal. The Protestant com- built at Seattle, U. S. A., for Chile were acquired mittee of the Provincial Board of Education wisely by the Canadian Government, and were brought to insisted on French courses of study in the Protestant the naval base at Esquimalt, B. C; the Canadian schools in certain grades; similarly the Catholic Naval Service was placed legally at the king's dis- schools are required to use English in the first posal, the Rainbow being already in commission year. In Ontario the English-speaking population off the Pacific Coast, and the "Niobe" was rapidly (about 2,000,000) has a greater majority over those commissioned and put out to sea off the Atlantic speaking over languages (500,000). The same Ian- coast. In 1020 the nucleus of the Canadian fleet guage privileges as in Quebec are allowed to the was formed by the gift of Great Britain of the light minority, but the people have never succeeded in cruiser "Aurora," the destroyers "Patriot" and enacting the same concessions into law. In recent "Patrician," and two submarines, years there has been an influx of French-speaking War History. — ^At the outbreak of the European settlers into Ontario, displacing the Enelish-speak- War in 1914, steps were taken to organize a Ca- ing farmers. Nevertheless, regulations of increasing nadian expeditionary force, and volunteer troops severity, requiring the teaching of English in all comprising cavalry, artillery, and infantry, num- the schools, passed bv the Department of Educa- bering, with subsidiary units, upwards of 35,000 tion, led in 1915 and 1916 to acute and in some officers and men, were speedily assembled for pre- localities disastrous situations in French schools liminary training at Valcartier, Quebec. Within and school boards. The trouble was settled in ten days the fin£ contingent of over 33,000 troops November, 1916, by the judgment of the Privy embarked on transports at Quebec and crossed the Council of the Dominion, whicn held that the right Atlantic imder convoy of the British navy. After to the use of a certain language concerned only the completion of their training on Salisbury Plain legislative or court use and did not relate to educa- they arrived in France in Februaxy, 1915. Rx)ceed- tion, but that the right to manage schools as weU ing to Randers they speedily entered into the fight, as that to determine the language to be used in and during the spring and summer were engaged them were alike subject to the regulations of the in four principal battles: Neuve-Chapelle, Ypres, provincial education departments. The problem in Festubert, ancl Givenchy. The second division of the Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Canadian troops landed in England on 6 March, and British Columbia is due to the successive waves and in November a third division was accepted by of immigration which followed each other too the imperial authorities. At the end of 1915 rapidly to be assimilated. Of Manitoba's estimated Canada s military contribution amounted to 212,- one million, there are nineteen non-English racial 690 troops out of an authorized total of 250,000. units, six of which number more than 50,000. Each Legal measures were taken to increase it to 500,000. race took advantage of the coinpromise of 1896, In 1916 Lieut.-General the Honorable Sir Julian which allowed bilingual teaching in localities where B3mg was appointed to succeed General Alderson ten pupils spoke French or other language than in command of the Canadian troops at the front, English. In 1915 nearly one-sixth of the schools and in June, 1917, on his promotion to command of Manitoba were bilingual, 143 teaching French, 70 the Third Army, he was succeeded by Major Gen- German, 121 Polish or Ruthenian, in addition to eral Sir Arthur Currie. After the second battle of English. In 1915 the clause allowing bilingual Ypres the Canadian troops were occupied for some schools was repealed. In Saskatchewan a new months chiefly with minor operations and raids, but School Attendance Act was passed in 1917, reouir- they also took part in the Severe fighting at St. ing the parent or guardians to send the children Eloi in April, 1916, at Sanctuary Wood m June, to public school "unless the child was imder instruc- 1916, and on the Somme in September, 1916. In tion in some satisfactory manner." In Alberta the 1917 the Canadian troops bore a brilliant part in refusal of the supervisor of foreign schools in 1914 the victory of Vimy (April), and distinguished to recognize certain schools, which were considered themselves also at Arleux-en-Gohelle and Fresnoy. below the prescribed standard of efficiency, resulted Shifting north towards Lens in June and July they in the closing of almost ail the Ruthenian schools battled hard against the Germans, attacking and and of many German-Lutheran private schools, con- capturing the famous Hill 70 near Loos. In Sep- ducted by theological students from Lutheran col- tember they moved toward Ypres where four at- leges in the United States. The racial groups in tacks made in the last days of October and early British Columbia have been too small to cause any in November resulted in the capture of Passchen- trouble in the matter of language instruction in daele and the highly important ground on which public schools. the village stands. In addition to the combatant Government. — ^The new status of the Dominion troops valuable services were rendered by the of Canada can be seen in the signing by the Canadian Forestry and Railway Corps, also by the Canadian ministers of the Peace Treaties with Ger- Aviation Corps. In 1918 the Canadian troops dis- many and Austria in behalf of Canada and the tinguished themselves in the battle of Amiens representation of Canada in Washington by her (6-10 August), the capture of Monchy-le-Preux own resident minister. Women have the vote and (26-28 August), the breaking of the Drocourt- are eligible for election to Parliament. In the latter Qu^ant line (2-4 September), the crossing of the part of 1920 there was an increasing demand for Canal-du-Nord and the capture of Bourlon Wood the right of Canada to amend her own constitution (27-20 September), the capture of «Cambrai (1-9 without applying to the king and his advisers. In October), the capture of Denain (20 October), the this Quebec did not participate because her Ian- capture of Valenciennes (2 November), and the guage and civil law nghts are guaranteed against capture of Mons (10 November). Up to 31 De- aggression so long as the consent of the British cember, 1918, the casualties among the Canadian Parliament is required for amendments. Expeditionary Forces numbered 9,989 officers and