The crownlands of Canada are situated in the Prairie Provinces, in the Dominion Railway Belt of British Columbia, and in a block in northera British Columbia, containing 3,500,000 acres, known as the Peace River Block. A total of 120^94,407 acres have been alienated from the Crown. In the Maritime Provinces, in Quebec, Ontaria, and British Columbia, the public lands are administered by the provincial governments. In Nova Scotia the total area of the crownlands is 816,862 acres; in New Brunswick, 7,250,000 acres. In Quebec 6,330,751 acres of public lands are subdivided and unsold.
FiSHERiESd — The capital invested in the sea fish- eries of Canada in 1919 was $27,189,212; in the inland fisheries, 14,186,940; in fish-canning and curing es- tablishments, 123,200374; total of capital invested in fisheries, $54,577,026. In the sea fisheries 58,885 persons were employed; in the inland fisheries, 8,919; in the fish-canning establishments, 18,356. The value of the products of the fishing industry in 1919 was $56,508,479; in 1918, $60,250,544. In 1920 the salmon fisheries of British Columbia brought $15,129,348. In the same year the chief exports went to the United Kingdom ($9^90305), the United States ($18,568,264), Cuba ($2,387,528), Australia ($538,566), British West Indies ($1,662,- 398). and Porto Rico ($1,301^54). The value of the fishing boats, nets, traps, and wharves in 1920 was $29393,213.
Mikes. — Mineral production reached $217,775,080 in 1920, the highest figure on record. British Co- lumbia, with $33^96,313, ranked the highest in the value of minerals produced. Gold brought $15,- 853,478; nickel, $24,454,597; copper, $14,166,479: coal, $76,326353; asbestos, $13,677341; Portland cement, $14,798,070.
Manufactubes.— The statistics of manufactures in 1918 revealed 678,337 employees, earning in salaries and wages $629,790,644; turning out products worth $3,458,036,975; the capital invested was $3,- 034,301,915, and the cost of materials $1,900,252,314. Ontario ranked first in the value of products, $1^09.067,001 ; Quebec second with $920,621,171 ; and British Columbia third with $216,175,517.
CoMMEBCB^ — ^The imports from the United King- dom into Canada in 1921 totaled in value $213,- 944314; from the United States, $856,613,430; from all other countries, $169,600,638; total, $1,240,158,- 882. The exports to the United Kingdom from Canada totaled $489,152,637; to the United States, $464,028,183; other countries, $286,311,278. The total commerce aggregated $2,450,587,(X)1. The duty collected on imports in 1921 was $179,658,474.
I'^ANBPOBTATiON. — The increase in railroad mile- age in 1919 was the smallest in recent years, owing to the scarcity of capital, being 17: in 1918 it was 275; 1917, 1,170; 1916, 1352; 1915,4,787; 1914, 1,491; 1913^ 2377. The total mileage in actual operation in 1919 was 38,896; the total capitalization $2,009,- 209310. In 19()3 the Dominion Government under- took the construction of the eastern division of the National Transcontinental Railway from Moncton, N. B., to Winnipeg, to be leased to the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway for fifty years. Upon the failure of the latter to take over the operation of the road, when completed, the Government under- took its operation. The Prince Edward Island Rail- way is al^ the property of the Dominion Govern- ment. In 1917 by an Act of Parliament the Do- minion aoouired the capital stock of the Canadian Northern Railway Company (9,566^ miles). In 1918 the Quebec and Saguenay Railway (62 miles) was purchased by the Government, and in 1919 the £otbini^re and Megantic Railway (30 miles). The land subsidies granted to railways up to 30
June, 1919, extends to 56,237,383 acres; the total value of public aid, $275,163,228 (exclusive of the capital of the two government railways), of which $219,077,163 represents aid granted by the Dominion Government, $17,914,836 by municipalities, and $38,- 171,229 by Provincial Governments. During the year ending 30 Jime, 1919, loans of $25,000,000 were made to the Canadian Northern Railway and of $7,500,000 to the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway.
Finance.— -The gross debt on 21 March, 1921, amounted to $3,014,483,774, and the net debt to $1,935,946313. On 31 July, 1920, the net debt was $2,234,496,916. The total war expenditure down to 31 March, 1920, was about $1,670,000,000.
Education. — Education is more or less com-
?ulsory, but the law is not very strictly enforced, n Ontario, Quebec, Alberta, and Saskatchewan there are separate schools for Catholics; in the other provinces the schools are non-sectarian. The following are the latest statistics:
Nova Seotia.... New^ Brunswick
British Col'bia P. E. Island...
Dec., 1918 June, 1018 July, 1919 June, 1919 June, 1919 June, 1919 June, 1919 Dec, 1918 Dec., 1918
14,357 16,995 3,012 2,107 3,215 2,332 606 5,652 6,223
$18,558,890 14.482370 2.007.593 1.530,250 5.813.307 4,228,720 285.960 4.843,890 6.867,515
Canada's recent interest in technical education is evidenced by the Act of 1919, providing for aid to the provinces in promoting and assisting technical education in Canada by annual grants, beginning at $700,000 and aggregating $10,000,000 within a period of ten years. Out of the annual grant each province is to receive $10,000, while the oalance is to be divided among the provinces in proportion to their population as shown in the last decennial census. The benefits of the Act are extended to persons over fourteen years who are not provided for by the ordinary day schools, and includes also agricultural studies, the training of nurses and teachers for ordinary schools ana all work of uni- versity grade. The remarkable growth of expendi- ture on public education is seen in the increase between 1901, when it was $11,751,625, and 1919, when it was $72,992,667. For twenty-one of the twenty-two universities in Canada, the total value of the endowments and property in land, buildings, equipment, etc. (1920), amounted to $56,830,727; the total income $7,039,089, of which $1,507,579 was derived from fees and the balance from invest- ments, government grants, and other sources. The total expenditure was $6,542,213, and the total num- ber of students 28,486. Adding to these the 10,057 students attending the professional colleges in the same year, the grand total of students in attend- ance at Canadian institutions of higher education was 38,543.
The successive waves of immigration into Canada during the last decade have created some perplex- ing situations in the educational status. Twenty-six racial entities are now represented, whereas there used to be only two, the English and Freneh. In the Maritime Provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia the religious and educational relations between the English and French have been amicable; in Nova Scotia French readers are provided for French-speaking children