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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/17

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▲acben. See Cologns. admit them before they have shown their Apostolic

Avw^. f e r^ Tt T >ti^\ A ••i--uir letters are by the very fact suspended from the

  • i. « tiS: ^ 1 ^ u • »^™ M ."^el^PWe. for ^^ ^t of electing during the pleasure of the Holy

the office of abbess unless she is of legitimate birth, q^ ~e -^ r ^

and is at least forty years old : ten years, moreover. Abbots nuUius have the same ordinary powers must have elapsed since her first profession in the ^^ obligations a^ a residential bishop in his own u /u T?!f "\^u u^ requirements laid down diocese. Even though they have not been con- by the Code, which, however, confirms whatever ggcrated, they can, if Uiey have received the abbaUal more ngid qualifications are prescnbed by the Con- blessing, coiiecrate churches and fixed altars when «bituUons ol the various orders. The CouncU of necessary, and within their own territory and dur- Trent was less rigorous, as it fixed the jrears of j^g ^hgir term of office they may impart aU the prof ^on at eight, and authorised lowering the blessings reserved to bishops, except the pontifical age to thirty and the penod of profession to nve Ki«K,i„cr. fiiov ^ot» /.rvnaonrofo /.iioUnofl no+ona onH years, when no suitable candidate stricter qualifications could be foun<

Abbir, a titular see in Proconsular Africa, for- firmation, and confer first 'tonsure' and minor orders

merly Abbir<Jella or Abbir Majus, to distinguish on their own subjects, even secular, and on others

it from Abbir Minus in the same locality. It was y^o l^ve the requisite dimissorial letters, but or-

a suffragan of Carthage. One of its Bishops, Felix, ?ers conferred by them m any other case would be

is mentioned in the lists of African prelates as iiivalid. ,,..,... *_*_ ^

having taken the Catholic side in the great Car- As long as they possess local junsdiction abbots

thaginian conference of 411 between Cathohcs and ntdhw can give dimissonal letters to seculars, even

Donatists. Its ruins exist to-day at Henchir-en- ^^^ the reception of major orders. They can im-

Naam, about forty miles southwest of Tunis. Pa^t the papal blessing with a plenary indulgente

while withm their own temtoiy, but only on one

Abbot (cf. C. £., I-lSd). — ^An abbot is the su- of the more solemn feasts each year (bishops on

perior of an autonomous community of monks com* the other hand may grant it on two dam one oeing

prising as a rule at least twelve religious. There Easter Sunday); tney can designate ana declare a

are two chief classes of abbots: regular abbots de dsdly perpetual privileged altar in any church of

re{;imine, that is, superiors having jurisdiction only their territories if there is none there already, but

over the persons lay or ecclesiastical, attached to they cannot do so in public or semi-public oratories,

their abbey, and abbots nvUiua (i. e., of a territory unless these are united to a parochial church or

belonging to no diocese) whose jurisdiction extencus subsidiary to it, nor in a private oratory. Abbots

also over the faithful and churches of a district ntdliiis in their own territory, even when they are

around the abbey entirely separated from any not bishops, use the pontifical insignia with throne

diocese. The territory thus ruled is called an abbey and canopy, and may lawfully hold Divine services

mdUus and has its own clergy, who are not neces- there according to the pontifical rite: they may

sarily members of the monastic institute and its wear the pectoral cross, the ring, and the violet

own parishes. If it has less than three parishes it zucchetto, even when they are outside their terri-

is governed by special laws, just as the religious tory.

chapter of the abbey is governed by its own laws Abbots nuUius, the abbot primate and abbots

and constitutions. The erection, circumscription, superior of monastic congregations have a right to

division, union and suppression of abbeys nulliiis assist at oecumenical councils and the right to a

are reserved to the Holy See. An abbot mdliu8 decisive, not merely to a consultive, vote. Abbots

must have the qualifications required for the epis- nttUius, furthermore, must attend the quinquennial

copacy. He is nominated and instituted by the meeting of the local ordinaries of their province.

pope, unless the right of election or presentation On being promoted they must make a profession

nas been granted to a particular organization or of faith according to the formula approved by the

person, in which case he must he confirmed or in- Holy See, in presence of an Apostolic delegate; if

stituted by the pope. At the election he is chosen they fail to do so without a just cause, they are to

by an absolute majority of the valid votes cast, be warned, and if the warning is fruitless they are

unless there is a special law requiring a greater per- to be punished, even by deprivation of office and

centage. If the canons or the constitutions of his dignity, and of the enjoyment of its fruits for the

order require him to be blessed, he must receive time being. On the death of an abbot nuUitu, the

the abbatial blessing, from a bishop, whom he is free religious chapter succeeds to the government, unless

to select, within three months after receiving his the constitutions of the abbey provide otherwise;

Apostolic letters, unless he is legitimately prevented; within eisht days it must designate a vicar capitular

otherwise he is by the very fact susp^ded from to rule tne abbey until the new abbot is elected;

jurisdiction. if it fails to do so the metropolitan is to appoint

Abbots ntdUtu are included under the term ordi- one, unless other provision is made in the constitu-

nary when it is used in canon law, unless they are tions.

expressly excluded; they are also included under A re^Iar abbot de regimine lawfully elected is

the term bishop when the circumstances or the con- to receive the blessing of the bishoi) of the diocese

text do not £how a different intent on the part of where his monastery is situated witmn three months

the lawgiver. After their appointment they may after his election. Abbots who are not exempt are

not interfere for any reason in the government of blessed by the authority of their own bishops,

their abbey personally or through another before whereas for the benediction of exempt abbots tne

taking canomcal possession of it; if they interfere consent of the pope is required. Since the Bene-

they incur a canonical disability, and persons who dictines are exempt, being engaged in many distant