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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/18

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ABBKEVIAT0K8 2 ABOSTXOK

lands, it has not infrequently occurred that the (b) There can be no marriage between a man who abbatial blessing has had to be deferred for a long abducts a woman with a view to marrying her, as time while awaiting the mandate from Rome long as she remains in his power; if the woman, authorizing the bestowal of the blessing. Conse- however, after being separated from him and re- quently on 19 June, 1921, Benedict XV granted a stored to liberty in a place of safety consents to general mandate in virtue of which the benediction wed him, the impediment ceases. The Code ex- may be imparted to any abbot of the confederated tends the Tridentine legislation by enacting that Benedictines by the diocesan bishop without a the same impediment anses also when a man with special mandate, or by any bishop in communion a view to marriage detains a woman by physical with the Holy See if the diocesan bishop is dead, force in a place where she lives or to which she had or if there is written proof either that he has given gone of her own accord.

his consent or that ne is legitimately prevented Atuvbu, Pmd LfMuim (New Yoric, itiO), sn-M;

from bestowing the blessing. If a regular abbot I*"* ttamao* Ltgulatim (New Yoric, MM), lts-lt3.

de reaimine is a priest and has received the abbatial Aberdeen, Diocbot op (Abbboonensis; cf. C. E., benediction legitimately, he can confer tonsure wd I_41d).— The fourth bishop, Rt. Rev. JEneaa Chis- mmor orders on his own professed subjects; mider hoim, d. 13 January, 1918, was bom at Inverness in any other circumstances, ordmation conferred by i836, studied at Blaim CoUege, Aberdeen, and at him would be void unle* he poasessed the episcopal the Gregorian Univeraity, R^e, being ordained in character, aU pnvilegM to the contrary having now jgeo. After serving in various imssi^ in Scotland been revoked. Regular abbots de regimtne, hke he was made rect^of Blairs in 1890, the new build- abbots nu«.i«. may pontificate and have a thr«ie jngs being erected during his incumbency. He was and canopy; they mav wear a pectoral cross and a consecrated Bishop of Aberdeen in 1899. He was nng, but not the violet succhetto. In conclusion, succeeded by the present incumbent, Rt. Rev. It may be noted that no one may now become an Qeorge H. Bennett, b. in Antigua, B. W. I, 1876, abbot under the age of thirty. OHlaiied 1898, cons^ted 1918. In mi there were eighteen abbeys nuHtiw: The Catholic population of the diocese is about • Monte. CasMio, Subiacp, Monte Vermie. Cava dei i2,000. It has 43 lurches, 39 missions, 16 stations, Tirrem, and St. Paul-without-the-Walla (all m j abbey (Fort AuKustus) 7 convents for women Italy), New Nurcia (Australia), Our Lady Help of 47 geciilar priests. 26 monks 16 lav brothers 1 sem- Chwtians (Belmont, North Carolina), Santa Maria jn^ry with 120 wmmarians' and 9 profeasoi. The de Monserrato (Rio de Janeiro), Martinsberg (am congregations of women include the Religious of archabbey, Hvmgaiy), Emaedeln (&wtser&nd), thTsSred Heart, the Sisters of Nasareth, the Sis- Saint Peter (Muenster, Canada), all ruled by Black ten of Meixsy (3 houses), the Franciscans and the Benedictines; Monte O^iveto Mwnore (Italy) Sisten. of St. Joseph. St. Mary's CoUege, at Blain, under the Ohvebms; St.. Mauncejen-yalais(Switser- Aberdeen, is under the conduct of dioSeiin clergy land) under Augustimans.- . Wettingen-Mehrerau xhere is a school for girls with higher and jmuor (Vorarlberg, Austna), under Cistercians; Nonantula. ^^s with 8 teachers and an attendance o? 100. whjch IS ^rpetuaUjr united to the Archdioc^. of ^^ ^ „ elementary schools with 60 teachers Modena; Ban Martino al Monte Cimino and Saints ^nd an attendance of 1931. Under the Education

rZ'Zl^^ jK^'^r" s/ ^Ar«'nH'i?'H»nl«w ^ct of 1918 all the elementary schools^ now

Cistercians, Mindite or St. Alejandcr de Oroshi taken over by the local education authorities and

(Albania), formerly under Benedictines, are now gnnnortpd bv th«» nuhlic fnnrfu NnmrAth TToiuo

governed by secular abbots. In 1920 Benedict XV A&ffia S an i^cffial «hoSi for tSb with f^

made the sanctuary of Sante Maria di Polsi in ^SS^^iStSSteS^Mfof 100^^&

Calabria, Italy, formerly belonging to the Basilian ^!^^(SrM^^dwcmea»ro^hiJ^

monks, a titular abbey nvUius. Tts rector, who is foTbSys Sd one f or^Ss orphanage

removable at the will of the Bishop of CJerace, is t_ intemher 1911 the'eentpnarv of thp rf<«th of

^t l^Z^iJ^^i^^l^^^ "^ *^« Churoh in Scotland, was celebrated with

tion to administer Confirmation during his term of j-e^t solemnity at Fort Augustus. During the

A^^v -4 • ^°'^^ War three secular priests and several of the

ADoreTiatorB (cf. C. E., I-28c). — In the reoraani- Benedictines served as army or navy chaplains, sation of the papal chancery under Pius X the

college of abbreviators of the greater presidency Abjuration (cf. C. E., I-44c).--A8 schism, like

disappeared. As the abbreviators of the lower presi- aposta^ and heresy, is now pumshed with excom-

dency had been suppressed in the reforms of mumcation reserved specially to the Holy See, the

Pius VII, the last chapter in the history of eo- ordinary may not absolve from the censure if it is

clesiastical abbreviators has now been written. brpu^t before^ °}^,}^ *?? external forum unless the

Au^^^«^~ / ^ ^ T^ T <K>i-\ • • J . ^t. culpnt has jundically abjured his schism, that is m

AbducUon (cf. C. E., I-32b), is viewed m the i^ presence or in that of his delegate and at least

canon law either (a) as a cnme or (b) as a two witnesses, as in cases of aposta^ or heresy, dinment matnmomal imoediment. (a) The cnme

of abduction is committea when a man with a view Abortloii (cf. C. E., I-46d).— Those who actively to marriage or to the gratification of his lust carries and efficaciously bring about an abortion, the off any woman by force or fraud against her will, mother herself included, incur excommunication or a female minor who consents, but does so with- latcB aerUerUus, that is inflicted by the law with- out the knowledge of or against the orders of her out the formality of a sentence, absolution from parents or guardians. The law now explicitly re- which is reserved to the ordinary; if one of the quires for the crime of elopement or abduction by guilty parties is a cleric he is, moreover, to be seduction that the woman should be minor. For- canonicalljr deposed. The Code, it may be re- medy the crime of abduction was punished among marked, m speaking of co-operation says that other ways by excommunication incurred ipso facto those who command or induce another to perform and perpetual infamy; now there is no excom- an action, or who aid him in such a way tnat the munication, but the abductor is excluded from crime would not have been committed but for legitimate ecclesiastical acts and is to be punished their assistance, share equally in the guilt with the otherwise according ^o the gravity of his offense, principal culpnt, and so incur the same penalty.