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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/19

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An irregularity, that is, a hindrance tP the lecep- (Acta Ap. Sedis, 1919, p. 480). In answer to another

tion or exercise of orders in the Church, from query tne Sacred Penitentiary said that when in

vhich an ordinary cannot dispense, even in the virtue of an indult certain meats are allowed to

case of h^ own subjecte, is incurred by those who be eaten on days specified in the indult, persons

procure the abortion of a human foetus, and then: who by reason of age or labor are not bound to

co-operators. The Code does not restrict the fast may eat meat as often as they like on such

penalty to the case of an animated foetus as was days; many years earlier a similar reply was given

formerly the accepted doctrine. It should be noted in the case of people excused from fasting through

that these penalties are imposed only for abortion. iUness. Apart from these instances, in virtue of a

not for other operations even when they are sinful special indult in the United States "workingmen

or criminal. and their families are permitted to use flesh meat

Abrytos, a titular see of Lower Moesia, a country ^^^ \^y on all fast days and days of abstinence

of ancient Europe loosely corresponding to modem throughout the year, with the exception of Fridays,

Bulgaria, and suffragan of Marcianopolis. This Ash Wwinesday, Spy Wednesday, the forenoon of

city is first mentioned by the historian Dexippus Easter Saturday, and Christmas Eve."

S?llS^J?^hi^ ™?Siii7 nf ^fh^tnvSPn'!^^ ^f ^^^ <^' ^<^^ ^' Offlce.-The power placed in

A^biSh^^E^i'^^^^ i£l ^^h^'s^'^i^iK^^^

at the (Council 7i Ephesus (431) Some historians fc^'Ku^rb^lL^

others with Abteat iTDobrudia. be punished m whatever way seems proper to his

VI.UCAO wiuu AA^MMw uA x^vA uuj». fewful supeHor, uiiless a defimte penalty is laid

Abstinence (cf. C. E.. I-67b).<^The law of ab- down by the canons. Thus, vicars capitular and

fitinence regards only tne quality of food, while all others, whether members of a chapter or not,

that of fasting is concerned now merely with the who, personally or through others, remove, destroy,

quantity of food that may be taken. The law of conceal or substantially change any document be-

aostinence is binding on all those who have com- longing to the episcopal curia, incur excommunica-

Sleted their seventh year; it forbids Uie eating of tion reserved simply to the Holy See; in addition esh meat or soup made from meat, but not the they may be depnved of their office or benefice by use of eggs, milk, butter, cheese, or of condiments the ordinary. Again, should a person who is om- even when made from animal fat. The prohibition cially entrusted with the compilation or care of against eating fieh and flesh at the same meal has the records of the ecclesiastical curia or of the been abolished. Abstinence is now oblu^tory only parish registers, presume to falsify, forge, destroy, on fVidays, Ember Days, the vigils oi Pentecost, or conceal any or them, he is to be deprived of his the Assumption, All Saints', and Christmas, on Ash office, and if the circumstances demand it, he should Wednesday and the Saturaasrs of Lent; but the be otherwise severely punished by the ordinary. If obligation ceases on Holy Saturday at noon, and imyone betrays his trust in transcribing, transmit- also on all feasts of precept, except those falling ting or showing acts, documents, or books, when on week-days in Lent; furthermore, if one of the his services have been lawfully asked, he may be vigils mentioned above falls on Sunday there is punished by the ordinary by privation of office, no abstinence on the Sundav, or on the preceding suspension therefrom, and by a fine, according as Saturday as was formerly the case. For a^es the circumstances demand. Persons who en eavor to Holy See had i>er8istently refused to abolish the bribe curial officials or ecclesiastical administrators, Saturday abstinence, though in many places indults judges, advocates, or procurators, are to be pun- dispensing from it had been sranted; but now ab- ished, and compelled to make restitution if they stinenoe, as noted above, is ooligatonr only on the have caused any injury. Anyone who charges more Saturdays of Lent and the vigil of Pentecost. In than the lawfmly approved fees for voluntary acts some coimtries an indult has been grant, i to trans- of jurisdiction, or for the administration of the fer Saturday abstinence in Lent to Wednesdays, sacraments or sacramentals, or the legal costs of a excepting Ember Saturday. There is no mention suit is to be heavily fined, and if it is his second in the Code of abstinence on Rogation Dasrs nor offense he is to be suspended or removed from of the Advent fast or abstinence as such. The office, as circumstances demand, and in addition he regulations set forth in the Code do not affect must restore what he thus unjustly obtained, special indults or obligations imposed by vow or by A vicar capitular who grants dimissorial letters tne rules of religious or of communities not bound for ordination, without the consent of the chapter, by vow. when the see has been vacant more than a year, or Local ordinaries may appoint a special dav of if, when it has been vacant less than a year, he abstinence for their own territories as an isolated grants them to anyone except a person who is occurrence. They and parish priests can in in- obliged to receive orders by reason of a benefice dividual cases and for just reasons dispense from he has obtained or is to obtain or by reason of an abstinence persons or families subject to them, office which the interests of the diocese require to even if they are outside of their territories, and be filled without delay, is by that very fact sus- also travelers, possessing a domicile or quasi-domi- pended from the exercise of his sacred orders. If cile elsewhere, who happen to be within their terri- a religious superior unlawfully presumes to send tones. An ordinary can dispense the entire diocese dimissorial letters for ordination to a bishop other or a particular locality for reasons of public health than the ordinary of the diocese in which the house or on the occasions of a large gathering of the to which the candidate belongs is situated, or if he people; superiors of exempt clerical reli^ous have defrauds the diocesan bishop oy sending tne can^- the same power as parish priests over their subjects date to another house or deliberately oelays grant- and those living day and night in their houses. ing the dimissorial letters unto such time as the In reply to a query concerning the doctrine that bishop is away or is not ordaining, he is by that since the publication of the Code it is permissible very tact suspended from sasdng Mass for a month. to eat meat more than once on days of fast only. It the superior of an exempt religious house or the Commission for the interpretation of the Code church, on being admonished, does not correct said that it could not be safely held in conscience abuses that have crept in, the local ordinary must