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immediately inform the Holy See. In houses not Education.— Education, heretofore restricted to the

full^ established, if abuses have crept in and scan- secular and regular clergy, was extended in October,

dalize the faithful, the local ordinary can in the 1907, an edict being issued enjoining compulsory

meantime act bv himself. Again, religious superiors education on all male children over the age of

who admit to the novitiate aspirants who have not twelve. This is, however, a dead letter. There is

the requisite qualifications or the proper testimonial one school in Addis Abbaba, directed by a few

letters, or who allow a novice to oe professed when Coptic teachers, introduced by the Abuna; it has

it is uncertain whether or not he is suited for re- 100 pupils, but the attendance is irregular,

ligious life, should be punished, even by privation Aoricultubb.— The production of Harari coffee

of office. is on the increase, the supply being practically un-

A superioress of nims, even exempt, is to be pun- limited. In 1914, 3,810 metric tons were exported;

ished by the ordinary, by privation' of office if in 1915, 5,121 tons; in 1916, 6,364 tons,

necessary, if she presumes to spend the dowry of Abyssinia, Vicariate Apostolic of (Abtssinls),

a nun before her death, or if sne omits to notify is one of the three missionary divisions of Abyssinia

the local ordinary about the approaching admission in Africa. It comprises Tigre, Amhara and Gondar

of a candidate to the novitiate or to profession, and is entrusted to the Lazarist Fathers, the present

A reli^ous superior, male or female, who, without Vicar Apostolic being Rev. Edward Grusson, C. M..

the visitors consent, transfers a religious after a who was appointed in 1906. By latest statistics

canonical vwitation to another house, wid all fellow- there are 2,000 Catholics in this territory out of a

rehgious, whether superiors or not, who personaUy total population of 4,000,000; 6 parishes. 6 churches

or through others, directly or indirectly, induce a or chapels, 12 native secular priests, 6 European

rehgious to remain silent or to conceal the truth and 3 native missionaries, 16 native religious, 1

in ^y way, or not to be frank when interrogated seminary with 9 students, 2 secondary schools for

by the visitor, or who under any pretext mofest a boys with 60 pupils, 1 for girls with 20 pupils, 4

ft^nTo uS'Ti^itor i^t^'^dlcL^ hi tl f"^^^^^ «^W ^'^ ^ pV^«' ' missio^n, ^and 3 nas given lo tne visitor are to oe aeciarea oy tne dispensanes. Owing to the almost constant peise-

a pnest other than the ordinary chaplain, she is to

be admonished by the local ordinary; if she repeats Accession (cf. C. E., I-05d), Latin acceMiu, a

the offense, she is to be deprived of her office by the procedure in voting at papal elections, was abolished

ordinary, who must thereupon inform the Sacred by Pope Pius X in his Constitution '^Vacante Sede

Congregation for Religious about the occurrence. Apostolica," 25 December, 1904.

Abyssinia (cf. C. E., I-75b).— A kingdom in Accomplice (cf. C. E, I-lOOa).— The absolution northern Africa with an area of about 350,000 o^ ^^ accomplice in a sin against the sixth corn- square miles, and an estimated population of about mandment is invalid, unless the accomplice is in 10,000,000. It is divided into the following nine danger of death; even if there is danger of death provinces: Harar and dependencies, WoUo, Kaasa such absolution would be illicit on the part of the and Magi, Gore, Tigre, Damot and Gojam, Equa- confessor except in case of necessity, i. e., if no torial provinces, Gondar, Gima or Jimma. Menelik. other priest was present, or could be got, or if he the nuer from 1889, died in December, 1913, ana could not act without danger of scandal or loss of was succeeded by his grandson, Lij Yasu. On reputation on the part of the guilty priest, or finally 27 September, 1916, Lij Yasu was deposed bv pub- if . the penitent refused to confess to any other lie proclamation and Waizeru Zauditu, daughter of priest. A priest absolvinf; or pretending to absolve Menelik, was nominated empress, and Has Taffari ui violation of these provisions incurs excommunica- proclaimed regent and heir to the throne. The tion reserved in a very special way to the Holy empress was crowned at Addis Abbaba on 11 Feb- See; formerly the censure was reserved only ruary, 1917. The new government has been recog- specially.

are reports, however, that the splendiJ work done Zr^^.T^i.L^l^^ T ^^^"^

by Kmg Menelik in developing the country, and f^U^tr^n^ S^^^!t^^

wliich^ould probably have continued under his Th^^^l^'-i.i^^^

chosen successor, Lij Yasu, has fallen into decay SnJS^^fnl 'S'^'^ t'^^ .^I'^i^T ^^"^ ^^^'

and that Abyssinia is relapsing into a state aji- fj^fi innnfAf^H iTv!^^ ""St?^ ^U^

proaching barbarism. Under tht Arms Convention IS^l^^^aP^ointed Bishop of Tncarico 22 June, 1903,

for fear that they would be used for slave raiding w «r5T^r"'i oo^"^ • pansn^ iw secu-

purposes. During the World War Abyssinian troopS l*^/?2,®^r^}f ^ ^^^^' ^, ^^^?fi^' 20 religious, served with the British in the East African cam- tS^ii^/.'^Vk ^^ ? oh&pe^. At Matera there were paig^ 19,700 Catholics, 4 parishes, 25 secular pnests, 26

There is a railway of meter gauge from the port seminarians, 28 sisters and 27 churches or chapels, of Jibuti in French Somaliland to Dire Dawa Acerra, Diocesb of (Agerrarum), in the province (about twenty-five miles from Harar), in the south- of Caserta, Italy, suffragan of Naples. The first east of Ab3rssinia. In January. 1909, a new company bishop recorded for this see is Concordius in 499, was formed to complete the line from Addiis and after a lapse of centuries we find Bartholomaeus Abbaba, taking over the portion completed on in 1179, but the list does not become regular until French territory; and the section to the Hawash 1247, with Luca. The see was united m 1818 to River, 150 miles from Dire Dawa, and the same that of Santa Agata dei Goti, but was again made distance from Addis Abbaba, reached the capital a separate see, & November, 1854. It is dedicated in 1917. to Our Lady of the Assumption. Its present bishop.