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0ABMB8 158 OABPI

was 375, with over 5000 religious. There are (1021) Pomipe as centers of administration, and (b) the

16 convents of nuns in England and 12 in Ireland. Western Carolinas with Palau and Yap as adminis-

In the United States there arc communities at trative centers. In Yap there are 76 Japanese, 8,537

Baltimore, St. Louis, New Orleans, Boston, Phila- natives, and 3 Europeans.

delphia, Brooklyn. Santa Clara (Cal.), Wheeling, The world wide mterest which nas centered in Los Angeles (two nouses), Seattle, Bettendorf (la.T, the tiny island of Yap is due to the fact that the Grand Rapids, and New York. The New York cable lines connecting San Francisco, Shanghai, foundation was made 16 July, 1920, by five Car- New Guinea, and the East Indian Islands cross at mclitc nuns from Baltimore. On May, 1875, some this point, which is the crux of the Pacific cable corn- nuns from Reims established a convent at Hoche- mumcation. After the outbreak of the European laga near Montreal, and another Canadian founda- War in October, 1914, the Japanese fleet took pos- tion was made at St. Boniface 26 July, 1912. The session of the Caroline Islands and by a special American Province of Calccd Carmelite Friars has arrangement effected in November, 1914, became a novitiate and scholasticate at Niagara Falls, Ont., the sole administrators of the island. The cables and priories in the Archdioceses of Chicago and connecting New York and Germany were cut and Toronto, and Dioceses of Newark, Pittsburgh, diverted respectively by France to Brest and by Altoona, and Leavenworth. The Ratisbon Province Great Britain to Halifax, so that American press of Discalced Carmelite Fathers has a foundation at dispatches must be sent by way of Manila. As Milwaukee, Wis., and the Cataluna Province has a Japan was awarded the mandate over the former foundation at Tucson, Arizona. Fathers of the German islands north of the equator, she claimed Irish Province of Calced Carmelites are represented that Yap was included in the mandate. This in the Archdiocese of New York. On 1 February, award put Japan in control of the cable communi- 1921, the Holy See issued a decree of dissolution cations, also, and to this the United States vigor- of the convent of Marienthal in Alsace, and of ously protested. At the Congress of Communications secularization of the religious guilty of insubordi- called in Washington in 1920, mainly to determine nation to ecclesiastical authority. the disposition of the cables taken from Germany

during the war, the United States insisted that Oarmes, Martyrs of the. — On 26 January, 1916, the above two cables should be restored to Germany the cause of beatification or declaration of martyr- and that the Far East line crossing the Pacific by dom of Jean Marie du Lau, archbishop of Aries, way of Yap be internationalized. Frangois-Joseph de la Rochefoucauld, Bishop of The controversy rising from this question was Beauvais, Pierre-Louis de la Rochefoucauld, Bishop settled at the Disarmament Conference in Wash- of Saintes and their 210 companions, tnartyTB of ington in 1921 and the following agreements were the Cannes, was introduced and signed by His made: The United States was to have free access Holiness Pope Benedict XV. The three prelates to Yap and as Japan was to maintain on the island and their companions were victims of their loyalty an adequate radio-telegraphic station co-operating to the Church in their refusal to subscribe to the effectively with the cables and other radio stations, civil constitution of the clergy which at the end the United States gave up its right to establish of the eighteenth century the infidel government radio-telegraph stations in Yap. No cable censor- of France sought to impose on her. Jean Marie ship was to oe exercised by Japan; the free entry du Lau, b. in Perigeaux in 1738, was distinguished and exit of all persons and property was to be for his piety and love of learning from his youth, guaranteed; no taxes, port, harbor, or landing He receivecf his philosophical and theological train- charges or exactions, either in the operation of the ing at the Seminary of St. Sulpice and as Arch- cables or pertaining to property, persons or vessels bishop of Aries devoted himself particularly to were to be levied. Traffic in arms and ammunition the studies, spirit and discipline of his clei]sy. was to be controlled. The suppl3ring of intoxicating Refusing to take the oath to the civil constitution spirits and beverages to natives was prohibited, also he was brought to Paris and cast into the prison of military training of natives, except for police and the Cannes, formerly a Carmelite monastery, where loccJ defense. No military or naval base could be he was assassinated. FrauQoi&Joseph de la Roche- established or fortificatioiis erected. With respect foucauld, b. in Angouleme in 1796, studied theology to missionaries, Japan was to insure complete free- in the seminary of St. Sulpice and the College of dom of conscience and the free exercise of all forms Navarre and in 1772 was appointed bishop of of worship, consonant with public order and moral- Beauvais. He wrote and worked in the defense of ity and freedom of access to all missionaries who the Faith and was noted for his goodness to the could acquire and possess property, erect religious

Eoor. His brother Pierre-Louis de la Rochefoucauld, buildings and open schools throughout the coun-

. in Angouleme in 1744, studied at St. Sulpice try. Tne above clause regarding the missionaries

and passed from one ecclesiastical dignity to will reopen more than one hundred Christian

another, being finally promoted to the see of schools tnroughout the mandated area, as under a

Santes. His principal care was the education of ruling of the League of Nations, the Japanese had

youth, and he was a vigorous antagonist of Jan- closed these mission schools and established their

senism. As president of the States Provincial of own secular instruction in accordance with the laws

Saintonge and deputy of the States General he of Japan. The United States Senate ratified the

signed the principles set* forth against the civil con- treaty with Japan, 1 March, 1922.

stitution of the clergy. Together with his brother. In 1911 the Prefecture Apostolic of the Caroline

the bishop of Beauvais, he was imprisoned in the Islands was suppressed with that of the Mariana

Cannes, where persisting in their refusal to take Islands, their territory except the island of Guam,

the oath, they were put to death. being then erected into the Vicariatb Apobtouc op

^ ,. . - - . , ^ . THE Mariana and Caroune Islands (q.v.). Caroline Islands, formerly a German possession,

now under the mandatory of Japan, according to Oarpi, Diocese of (Carpensis; cf. C. E.,

the Treaty of Versailles (1919). The chief islands IIW74c), in the province of Modena, Italy, suf-

are Ponape, Yap, Truk, and Kusai. For administra- fragan of Modena. This see is at present (1922)

tive purposes, the islands were divided into two filled by Rt. Rev. Andrea Righetti, b. in San Colom-

groups: (a) the Eastern Carolinas, with Truk and bano Cornice, 1843, appoint^ 14 December, 1891,