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a bishop, and he must get the consent of the ordi- dell *Alto and Abbe of St. Peter and St. Mark,

nary to bless or consecrate a sacred place; of Rt. Rev. Giovanni Scotti, b. in Barono 1874, was

precedence over all prelates and patriarchs, and appointed to this see 21 February, 1911, and filled

even papal legates, unless the legate be a cardinal it until his promotion to the Archdiocese of Ro».

resident in his own territory— outside of Rome a sano, 13 December, 1918. The present incumbent,

cardinal legate a kktere precedes all others; of con- Rt. Rev. Giuseppe Antonio Caruso, was appointed

fernng first tonsure and mmor orders, provided the to succeed him 10 March, 1919. The statistics of

candidates have the proper dismissonal lettere; of 1920 count the Catholic population of this diocese

administenng confirmation, but in this case he must at 60,000, and credit it with 30 parishes, 4 vicariates,

make the proper entries m the parochial register; 64 secular priests, 30 seminarians, and 70 churches

of granting indulgences of two hundred days, to or chapels, be gained as often as the conditions are fulfilled

in places or institutes and by persons under his Oannellte Order (cf. C. E., in-354a).— Recent

jurisdiction or protection — he can also grant the discussion about the antiquity of the Order has

same to be gained in other places by those who led to little more than a re-assertion of the well

are present there, though not toties quoties; of known arguments on both sides. An important

entering the cloister of convents; of conferring on itena of evidence, however, has been found by

his own and even private oratories all the rights Fr» Gabriel Wessels in the writings of the Domin-

and privileges of semi-public oratories; of keeping ican Stephen de Salanhaco, b. about 1210, became

or reading books forbidden by the merely ecclesias- ^^9^ of Limoges in 1249, of Toulouse in 1259,

tical law. Fimdly, cardinals are exempt from penal- Visitor in Scotland in 1261, and died at Limoges

ties imposed by canon law unless they are expressly 8 January, 1291. He asserts that the Patriarch of

included. Antioch, Aymericus de Malafayda, wrote a rule

Anyone who without permission of the Holy See of life for the hermits whom St. Berthold had

dares to bring a cardinal before a lay tribunal on a gathered together on Mount Carmel. This rule,

matter arising out of his ofiice incurs an excom- which is also referred to by a number of some« 

munication specially reserved to the Holy See; a what later writers, has been identified by Father

similar excommunication is imposed on anyone who Wessels with the one commonly attributed to John

lays violent hands on a cardinal, such a culprit is XLIV (or more correctly XLU), Bishop of Jeru-

in addition ipso jure rendered infamous and is de- salem in the fourth century. It had long since

prived of his benefice, oflice, dignities, pension and been observed by critics that it could not oe the

position, the Church if he held any. work of a Greek author, but was clearly by a

It is Uie privilege of the dean of the cardinals to Latin who was very slightly, if at all, acquainted ordain and consecrate the pope-elect, if he is not with the Greek language, and that the Latin lan- already a priest or bishop; in doing so he wears the guage iised showed clear traces of the French pallium; in his absence the sub-dean enjojrs this nationality of the author. All this is fully borne right, but if he also is unable to ofiiciate the cere- out by Fr. Wessels' discovery and the conclusions mony is to be performed by the oldest suburbi- he arrived at, and it disposes of one of the great carian cardinal bishop. The cardinal proto-deacon difficulties with which the whole question of the acting for the pope imposes the pallium on those antiquity of the order is beset. Perhaps the deacon entitled to it or on their representatives; it is he Joseph of Antioch, author of the (lost) treatise also who announces the name of the newly elected inscribed "Speculum periectsB militisB primitiva pontiff to the people. A cardinal promoted to a ecclesiae" may have been a contemporary of Aymer- suburbicarian see and sent into it canonically is icus, since Poasevin's contention that he belonged the true bishop of the diocese, enjoying in it all to sub-Apostolic times, is clearly impossible, the powers of a residential bishop. The other Among the recent Generals of the Discalced cardinals after taking canonical possession of their Carmelites must be mentioned Cardinal Jerome- titles or deaconries enjoy there all the rights which Maiy Gotti, bom at Genoa 29 March, 1834, mem- local ordinaries have in their own churches, but ber of the Order since 1860, procurator-general 1872 they have not the power of holding trials or of JiM 1881, when he became general, which office he exercising jurisdiction over the faithful; they may, ?eW until his nomination as internuncio to Brazil however, regulate discipline, correct morals and ^ 1891. He was consecrated titular Archbishop of supervise the service of their own churches. A Petra 22 March, 1892, recalled to Rome in 1895, and cardinal priest can pontificate in his own title with elevated to the cardinalitial dignity. For about throne and canopy, and a cardinal deacon can fifteen years he held the most important office of assist pontifically in his own deaconry and no one prefect of the Congregation of Propaganda. He else is permitted to do so there without his con- <^^, ^^ March, 1916.

gpnt; but in other churches in Rome the cardinals re- The most important recent contributions to

quire papal permission to have a throne and canopy. Carmelite literature are "Analecta Ordinis Car-

Codez JUT. can., 230-41; Veembbsch-Cibusen, EpiBt. jur. melitarum," published in Rome (under the editor- ran., 24«.54. gluD of Ft. Gabriel Wessels), by order of the Gen-

Cardlnal Protector (cf. C. E., ra-34la).-Reli. ^™ Chapter of the Calced Carmelites of 1908. In

gious orders and institutes have their cardinal pro- connejrtion with this penodical was e<hted in 1912

tectore whose only office is to help them by his J?® first volume oj^ActeCapitulorum," containing

counsel and to protect their rights. Unless other- the chapters from 1318 to 1593, the text being edited

wise expressly provided for in particular cases the ^ Fr. Wessels, and practically all the notes by Fr.

cardinal protector has no jurisdiction over the in- Benedict Zimmerman, O. C. D The Discalced Car-

stitute or its members, and cannot interfere in its ?ff**^ publish, since 1911 "Etudes Carmelitaines

internal discipline or the administration of its *"?°?3,^^.t.^^ cntiqucs" (Pans, Gabalda).

property. ^° *^*° tnere were 18 provinces and 112 convents

ri.w.«^ T^ if^ ^ ^ ^ ?^ Calced Carmelite Friars, with about 2800 mem-

rrf^^' .Diocese op (Carutenbis; cf. C. E., bers; in 1913 there were 14 provinces and 3 semi-

III-^7d), m the province of Cosenza, Southern provinces with 172 convents and residences of Dis-

Italy, suffragan of Santa Severina. The bishop of calced Carmelite Friars and about 1900 religious,

this see bears the titles of Baron of Santo Nicolo The number of convents of Discalced Nuns in 1912