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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/204

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This neutrality was often endangered by the pre»- For Catholic statistics see Santuoo, Abchmocesb ence of belligerent warships in Chilean waters, by or; Concbpqon, Diocbsb op; San Carlos db Ancud the torpedoing of the French ship "Valentine" by Diocese op; Serena, Diocese of; Tarapaca Vica- the cruiser "Leipzic" and the sinking of the German riatb Afostouc of; Antofogasta Vicariate' Apos- cruiser "Dresden" on 4 July, 1915, by a British naval touc op; Ahaucania, Prebbcture' Apostouc of division at Juan Fernandez. The latter case caused -- . ,. -_

international compUcations. On 2 April, 1915, the ^ ™*""» Central, Vicariate Apostouc of (C»-li British squadron appeared in Chilean waters and h"^'?^^* erected 14 February, 1910, comprising

blew up his vessel. Chile demanded an apology Chi-h (see C. E., XVI-S2). It is entrusted to the from Great Britain for the intrusion of the British jLAzansts with the official residence at Pao-ting-fu. squadron and its violation of Chilean neutrality, i^^ P^^^. ^1^) vicar apostolic is Rt. Rev. This was granted and accepted, to the intense dis- Joseph-Sylvam Fabrfegues, titular Bishop of Alali, pleasure of Germany, who protested, denying all °^^ "^. Montpellier 1872, ordained 1896, and joined the ail^ations in the British note of apology and ^he .mission at Northern Chi-li, director of the demanding satisfaction. On 25 May, 1915, Chile districtof Pao-ting-fu 1905, appointed 22 Februaiy, signed the A- B. C. treaty in Buenos Aires (see 1?J"- ^® ^ ^^^ ^^ vicar apostolic of this vicariate. Brazil). The following statistics show how rapidly the Faith

Chile's conflict with Peru and Bolivia over the has spread in this territory: in 1880 there were territories of Tacna and Arica still continues. The 5,463 Catholics; 1890, 7,970; 1899, 12,026: 1902. Treaty of 1883, which took from Peru the depart- 12,700; 1905, 26,283; 1910, 72,531; 1913, 84,196; ment of Tarapaca and provided that Chile's occupa- wid in 1920 out of a total population of 3,000,000, tion of the provinces of Tacna and Arica was to 85,836; this growth is particularly remarkable in be temporary and was to terminate, subject to a consideration of a massacre of 2,000 Christians plebiscite in 1893, has not been carried out as re- which occurred in this mission in 1900. The gards its essentisd provisions. The conditions of statistics of 1920 also credit the vicariate with 37 the plebiscite have never been agreeable to both mission stations, 720 villages where a mission is sides and the plebiscite, therefore, has never been given each year, 61 missionaiy priests, 140,000 con- carried out. In the meantime Chile has remained fessions, and 200,000 communions for the year, 22 in possession of the territory by force of arms, students in the upper seminaiy, 85 in the lower In the Treaty of 1904 Bolivia ceded Antofogasta seminary, and 60 in the preparatory seminary. In to Chile, and in return Chile began the construe- 1920 Pope Benedict XV addressed a letter to Bishop tion of a railroad from Arica to La Paz at her own Fabr^^es commending the splendid work he has expense (125,000,000). This railroad was completed done m recruiting and training native clergy, in 1913. Peru protested against the construction of mini t?.«.»^^, -« r ^ a l^

this hne. saying that it was to cross Tacmi, part or^tJLis. d^ P ^^tS^^m^^"^ °^ ^9^^ of the territory subject to a plebiscite decision. v^J^^,v?i;«* Vk "V %^^'rJ^' ,?^® £^ ^ This resulted m the suspension of diplomatic rela- T^^y:^J^&^ the terntoiy of Chi-li m North- tions between Peru andChile in 1910. After the p^fh^^f wiiioIf^T^^^^^^ -^^"^ ""^ }^^ Ifsanst European War Peru supposed that the League of f*, ^^tfl i„ i2S^*° ^^"""^ '* ^^ entrusted upon Nations would annul the Treaty of 1883 and return t^!? "^i? t^L _♦ r • t^x «  to Peru aU she lost in the war of 1879 (Tarapaca), v^^iJ^r^^l T^ f J^R^s^ohc is Rt. Rev. Ernest and Peruvian sympathizers rejoiced at the possi^ 5^^,S^^^^ ""! Rhinocdura, bom

bility of the League's annulliuK the treaty of 1904 L^^^^ ^k;,,«^*?^ at Cheng-Tmg 1887, with Chile. Thw policy tended toward i^uencing T^'fJ^.^tl^^^^' ^^' ^^^ episcopal resi- Bolivia against the Chilean project of making I An ;^ Ji^SF^^l"; •„ ,u' a- Bolivian port in Tacna anrf^ Arica, and instead ,:i^:"P^^^f ^T^'^ *^ ^"^^ .^^ presented to the Bolivians the expectation of re- ij^P. *^ J^^O of a higher seimnaiy at Chala near conquering without effort the rich httoral of Anto- Jjf °f' *P,^ ^ ?f, * <^^^[5^ seminary for the fogasta. The movement was resisted by Sefior ?I1!?^™J?^ f i^^^^"" ^fe'^iu^ ""^I^^ ?^ ^^^ Gutierrez Guerra of the BoHvian Government, who T^^^P^^}-' It*,?"^' Northern, Southwest- desired to keep the national faith pledged by the ®'^'™i??'!5iHt£ Vll^ ♦!, • * treaty of friendship with Chile. This caused a in ^o^ISfo ^?!;l^"? (1921) this vicariate counts: revolution in Bolivia. The new Government de- |2 ^^-^^^^J^f •^*'*'P^'S ^^^ churches. 224 missions, clared the treatv null and void. This concerted ^^ ^^on stations; 17 regular clergy, 30 Sisters, 1

estabUsh dangerous precedents for other countries. uL^ i^a^unu-^^ ^atliohc population num- It must not be forgotten that Bolivia enjoys in ^H nm (22j ^^^' ^^^ ^^ a total population practice all the advantages of having seaports. By «>wu,wu.

the treaty Chile granted her the right to have her Ohi-U, MARmMB (Tien-tsin), Vicariatb Apo»- own custom houses in the Chilean ports and at touc op (Cb-u maritimus), erected 27 April, 1912 present there are Bolivian custom houses in both comprising the civil prefecture of Tien-tsm-fu, for- Arica and Antofogasta. The final settlement of merly part of the Vicariate of Northern Chi-li or the dispute is expected at the conference to be held Peking (see C. E., XVI-82). This vicariate, terri- in March, 1922, in Washington between the pleni- torially one of the smallest, but numerically one potentiaries of Chile and Peru. of the largest in China, is entrusted to the Lazarists

Religion.—- In 1920 the Chilean legation to the with the episcopal residence at Tien-tsin. Rt. Rev. Holy See was raised to the rank of embassy. In Paul Dumond, bom in Lyons 1864, ordained 1888 1916 the Vicariate Apostolic of Magellan (q.v.) made director of the district of Pao-ting-fu IS98L was erected from the Chilean territory of the for- was appointed titular Bishop of Curubis and first mer Prefecture Apostolic of Southern Patagonia, vicar apostolic of this vicariate, 27 April 1912,