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CHINA 192 CHINA

dence, Fu-chow; vicar apostolic, Louis Clerc- reaching misBionaiy movements. Since 1910 no

Renaud, titular Bishop of Elea. Southern Kiang-si less than eleven new organizations have been ap-

(erected 1860) divided in 1920 into two vicariates pointed to missions in China. These particularly

as follows: (14) Ki-anfu; under the Lazarists; resi- come from America and Ireland. From America

dence, Ki-anfu; vicar apostolic, Nicholas Cicen, we have the Foreign Mission Society of MaiyknoU,

titular Bishop of Dausara. (15) Kan-chow, under the Society of the Divine Word, the (Chinese Mis^

the Lazarists; residence, Kan-chow; administrator, sion Society of Omaha, the Dominicans, the Vin-

Paul Dumond, vicar apostolic of Maritime Chi-li. centians, and the Passionists. From Ireland have

Fourth R^ion, under the Foreign Missions of come the Fathers of the Society for Chinese Mis- Pans. — (1) Kwei-chou, erected 1708; reestabliahed sions and the Christian Brothers of Ireland. In 1847; residence, Kwei-yang; vicar apostolic, Fran- 1920 the American Dominicans were appointed by (ois-Lazare Seguin, titular Bishop of Pinara. the Holy See to a mission in the Wovince of (2) Northwestern Sze-chwan, erected 1096; resi- Fukien. This province is under the care of Spanish dence, Cheng-tu; vicar apostolic, Jacques-Victor Dominicans who set aside a portion of their terri- Rouchouse, titular Bishop of iEgea. (3) Eastern tory for the American province. The Amencan Sze-chwan, erected 1860; residence Chung-king; Vincentians took over a new mission in Southern vicar apostolic, Celestin-Felix Chouvellon, titular Kiangnd in 1921, and Mgr. Dumond, formerly Vicar Bishop of Dansara. (4) Southern Sze-chwan, erected Apostolic of T'ien-tsin, was appointed as vicar 1860; residence, Sui-fu; vicar apostolic, Marie-Pierre apostolic. The Passionists were appointed to North- Fayolle, titular Bishop of Lampa. (5) Yun-nan, west Hu-nan in 1921. In 1918 the first band of erected 1702; reestablished 1840; residence, Yim- missionaries from the Foreign Mission Society of nan; vicar apostolic, Charles-Marie de Gorostarzu, Maryknoll reached China, following their appoint- titular Bishop of Aila. (6) Tibet, erected ,1846; ment by the Holy See to a section of the Province residence; Khanting; vicar apostolic, Pierre-Philippe of Kwan^ung. Recently they obtained further Giraudeau, titular Bishop of Th3mias. (7) Kien- territory m the Province of Kiang-si with nussion tchang, erected 1910; residence, Ning-yuan-fu; vicar headquarters at Wu-chou on the borders of the apostolic, Joseph Bourgain, titular Bishop of two provinces. The Chinese Mission Society re- Archelais. ceived its appointment to the Province of Hu-pe

Fifth Re^on.— (1) Fu-kien, erected 1696; under in 1919 and the following ycjfir its first band of m£-

the Domimcans; residence, Fu-chou; vicar apos- sionaries reached China. The headquarters of

tolic, Francis Aguirre, titular Bishop of Botluys. the Society are at Han-yang, in the Province of

(2) Amoy, erected 1883; under the Domimcans; Hu-pe. The Society of the Diving Word was ap-

residence, Amoy; vicar apostolic, Emmanuel Prat, pointed to a new vicariate in Kansu during 1921

titular Bishop of Mactaris. (3) Hong-Kong, erected as a compensation for the missions they lost dur-

1874; under the Foreign Missions of * Milan; resi- ing the war.. The American province of the Society

dence, £tong-Kong; vicar apostolic, Domenico with headquarters at Techny, 111., sent its first

Pozzoni, titular Bishop of Tavia. (4) Canton (until missionaries to Shan-timg in 1919. In addition to

1914 prefecture of Kwang-tung), erected 1858; these missionary forces we must also add the Irish

under the Foreign Missions of Paris; residence, Vincentians who have opened schools in Pekin, and

Canton; vicariate vacant. (5) Western Kwang- two American secular priests who have gone to

tun^, erected 1920; under the Forei^ Missions of engage in educational work in the Vicariate of

Pans; residence, Fort-Bayard; vicar apostolic. Eastern Ho-nan under the direction of the Foreign

Auguste Gauthier, titular Bishop of Doberus. Missionaries of Milan.

(6) Swatow, erected 1914; imder the Foreign Mis- Two orders of Sisters opened institutes in China sions of Paris; residence, Swatow; vicar apostolic, during 1920 and 1921. In 1920 the Sisters of Divine Adolphe Rayssac, titular Bishop of Cotiseum. Providence of St. Mary's of the Woods, Ind., sent

(7) Kwang-si, erected 1875; imder the Foreign six Sisters to open schools in the Vicariate of Missions of Paris; residence, Nan-ning; vicar apos- Eastern Ho-nan. The following year the first band tolic, Maurice-Francois Ducoeur, titular Bishop of of the Missionary Sisters of St. Dominic, oivanized Barbalissus. (8) Shiu-kow, erected from Canton by the Foreign Mission Society of MaiyknoU, New in 1920; imder the Salesians; residence, Shiu-kow; York, reached China and will work in the missions vicar apostolic, Alo3r8ius Versiglia, titular Bishop of of the Society in Kwang-tung and Kiang-si. In Caiystus. (9) Macao (Diocese), erected 1516. The 1921 the Christian Brothers of Ireland arrived at diocese, suffragan of Goa, India, includes the Portu- Han-yang, Hu-pe. This order has taken over the guese colony of Macao, the prefecture of Chaoking educational work for the Chinese Mission Society and sub-prefecture of Siangchan in China; while in the Province of Hu-pe. The China Mission outside of China it includes the Island of Timor College at Almonte, Canada, sent its first mis- and the Portuguese missions of Malacca and Singa- sionaries to Kwei-chou in 1919.

pore. The vicar capitular is Mgr. Jos^ da Costa The native orders of men are the Paulists and Nunes with residence at Macao, a city of 40,000 the Brothers of the Sacred Heart. Two unsuccess- opposite Hong Kong. ful attempts have been made in tlfe last half cen-

Religious Orders^ — ^At the outbreak of the Euro- tury to establish the Congregation of the Mother pean War many of the missionaries of French of God. The first was made by Mgr. LanguiUat, orders and missionary societies returned to France, who established the Congregation of St. Joseph. It is estimated that one-third of the French mis- This was to be a native order of catechists and sionaries at this time were mobilized. We can teaching brothers. It was unsucc^eful and the few realize the effect of this when we remember that brothers who remained after its dissolution were the majority of the missionaries in China at the received into the Congregation of the Mother of outbreak of the war were of French nationality. God, then in its infancy. The latter congregation The Jesuits, Vincintians, and Foreign Missionaries was foimded by Mgr. Gamier at Nan-l^ng. In of Paris, who hold between them 25 of the 53 1909 this order was united with the Marist Brothers vicariates into which China is divided, are almost by Mgr. Paris, Vicar Apostolic of Kiangnan. The entirely French. This depletion of missionary union lasted three years, and difficulties arose. The ranks, owing to war and its after effects, has been Marists believed these difficulties to arise from a the incentive in other countries for many far- difference in spirit and training and required all