OHBISTIAK 198 CHBI8TIAN
blind. The institute, which was confirmed 4 Foreign missionary work is carried on in Porto February, 1888, by Leo XIII, had attained great Rico and in Japan, the mission in the latter coun- success throughout Germany when, in 1873, the try forminjg a conference independent of control by Kulturkampf deprived it of its principal activity — the American conference. In the two countries Christian education. Some of the Sisters went to there were in 1920, 12 American missionaries, 22 South America, where there are now many flourish- native helpers and 1,639 commimicants. In the ing communities. Others emigrated to New Orleans, United States this church controls seven educa- La., U. S. A., where, in May, 1873, they foimded tional institutions (including one for negroes), with a house^ and took clmrge of a parochial school. A about 1,500 students. The headquarters of the provincial mother-house was erected in Wilkes- church are at Dasrton, Ohio, where are issued the Barre, Fenn., in 1874. The institute spread rapidly, Herald of Gospel Liberty, a weekly, founded in and the Sisters now have houses in the Archdioceses 1808, and claiming to be the oldest English-lazuruage of Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, New York, religious newspaper in the United States, the "Chns- Philadelphia, St. Louis, and St. Paul, and in the tian Missionary" (monthly), the Christian Van- Dioceses of Belleville, Brooklyn, Detroit, Harris- suard" (monthly), and the "Christian Annual." burg, Newark, Scranton, Sioux City, and Syracuse. This sect reported in 1920, 1,204 churches, 1,037 The^ have in these establishments 784 Sisters, 41 ministers, 105,310 members (118,000 in 1916). In novices, and 20 postulants, conducting 4 academies, 1922 the statistics of the Federal Council of 51 parochial schools, and 1 orphan asylum. In 1916 Churches of Christ gave the membership of this the mother-house of the North American province church as 97,084, terming it a gain of 21,653 over was transferred to Wilmette, 111. The Sisters have the figures for 1921. The various statistics are houses not only in Germany but also in Bohemia, not entirely reliable; it is safe to conclude that and ill 1920 they opened a house in Rome, Italy, the membership is about 100,000. This denomina- The total i&embenmip of the congreeation in the tion has its greatest strength in Ohio« North Caro- three provinces, the European, North and South lina, Virginia. Illinois, and Indiana.
American, is L9(X). Rigolb, The ChrUtian Church, Itt Rise and Proffre»$ (Ander-
80I1, Ind., 1912) ; MsiiGHEB, Hiitory of the Protestant Rettgion*
/n.^..«4«t ffu^mAU fk . . n — r^ (New York, 1914) ; iJeii>w>t« fioduM, 1916 (Washington, 1919) ;
OhXiStian Ohurdl (AmbMCAN Christian Con- Year Book of the Churehea (New York, annual).
vention) is the name of a small American sect, Gerald Shaughnessy.
which is perhaps the most logical of the numerous
forms of Protestantism, in that it sets forth abso- Ohristian Science (Churcth of Christ, Sgien- lutely no creed or statement of doctrine (except tist), an American sect, chartered in 1879 by Mrs. the Bible), and in that no differences ' *' * •* -- -- . -.. /*^ - v t:.jj__ •_ _ xi._^
belief, due to different interpretations constitutes a bar to membership, pro a follower of Christ." Although the general ten- and claims, through a revival of the apostolic dency of this church is "evangelical" it is not clear healins of Christ (hence the name Christian) to that denial of the Divinity of Christ would exclude depend on the application of scientific rules (hence a member provided he accepted Christ as Master Science) in the accomplishment of its work, and Leader. Baptism is not considered necessaiy Tenets, Government, Ritual. — "No creed as such for members, although some preach its reception as is recognized in this cnurch, but the official text- a dutv. Lnmersion is the form generally used, but book, Mrs. Eddy's "Science and Health, with Key any form is admitted. Open commimion (admis- to the Scriptures," contains the teachings and the sion of non-members to reception of the com- rules for healing of the sick and saving the sinner, munion) is practiced, since no religious test is and in the "Manual" are found the tenets which required even of members. In organization this must be subscribed to by one obtaining membership sect is congregational, . the bond of union being in the dhurch. These tenets are as follows: 1. As conferences whose functions are chiefly administra- adherents of Truth we take the inspired Word of tive. the Bible as our sufficient guide to eternal Life.
This denomination is the result of the fusion of 2. We acknowledge and adore one supreme and defections from the Methodists in Virginia, the infinite God. We acknowledge his Son, one Christ; Baptists in New England and the Presbyterians in the Holy Ghost or divine Comforter; and man in Tennessee and Kentucky between 1792 and 1803, God's image and likeness. 3. We acknowledge imder the respective leadership of James O'Kelley, God's forgiveness of sin in the destruction of sin Abner Jones, and Barton Stone (and others), who and the spiritual understanding that casts out evil desired more freedom of private interpretation as unreal. But the belief in sin is punished so than was possible in the churches which they left, long as the belief lasts. 4. We acknowledge Jesus' A general organization was effected in 1819, but atonement as the evidence of divine efficacious love, the name "Christian" (adopted because they unfolding man's unity with God through Christ the claimed to be the exponents of the true doctrine Way-shower: and we acknowledge that man is of Christ), dates from 1794 when O'Kelley and his saved through Christ, through Truth, Life, and Love followers dropped the name "Republican Metho- as demonstrated by the Galilean Prophet in heal- dists," which they had at first adopted. The quali- ing the sick and overcoming sin and death. 6. We fying phrase "American Christian Convention" is acknowledge that the crucifixion of Jesus and His the title of their quadrennial conference. The resurrection served to uplift faith to understand present official title of the church dates from 1916, eternal life, even the allness of Soul, Spirit, and previous to that the title being "Christians (Chris- the nothingness of matter. 6. And we solemiJy tian Connection)" in official reports. This sect is promise to watch and pray for that Mind to be often confused with the Disciples of Christ (Camp- in us which was in Christ Jesus; to do unto othm bellites) owing to the fact that Barton Stone and as we would have them do unto us; and to be many of his associates joined the latter in 1832, merciful, just, and pure.