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the abbey's former beauty and maffoificence. Cor- Baltinglass, Tintem, Graiguemanagh, Tracton,

comroe Abbey, Co. Clare, founded in 1194, is Dunbrodv, Nenay, Woney, Monasterevan, and

attributed to Donald Mor O'Brien, King of Lim- Bective had seats in parliament,

erick. A ^eat. monument shows that Donough / At the time of the suppression of the monasteries

O'Brien, King of Thomond, was buried here 1267. there were in Ireland 42 Cistercian monasteries and

John, Abbot of Corcomroe, became Bishop of Kil- 2 convents. Henxy VIII did what he could to

macduagh in 1418. Kilshare, Co. Clare, was founded overthrow religious houses in Ireland, and up to

in 1198 by the same Donald Mor. It seems to 1541, 78 religious houses had been surrendered, but

have been annexed to Concomroe. Abbot Florence outside the pale the monasteries seem to have con-

OTigemach became Bishop of Kilfenora in 1273. tinned imtil the defeat of the Irish princes at the

Comber Abbey, Strangford Lough, is attributed opening of the seventeenth century. Although the

to Brian O'Neill for the year 1200. Its site was monks were often driven from their monasteries

supposed to be that of a former monastery foimded they appear to have returned whenever a lull in

by St. Patrick. Tintem Abbey, Co. Wexford, was the persecution permitted. Thus we read of Holy

erected in fuliSlment of a vow made by William, Cross that the monks continued for a considerable

Earl of Pembroke, while in peril at sea. Its time after the monastery was legally dissolved, if

foundation dates from 1200. Being a daughter- not to dwell in the abbey, at least to remain in

house of Tintem in Monmouthshire, it is called the neighborhood, hoping against hope that better

Tintem Minor. Glangrah Abbey, Co. Cork, or times would come." As late as 1700 Bernard Lahy

The Vale of Charity, as it was called, is supposed fis chronicled as holding at least the name, if not

to date from 1200. Much uncertainty exists about the office, of abbot. The last of the monks of

this monastery. Some writers say it was in Ulster, this abbey died in 1752, having his cell amidst the

others in Westmeath, others again in King's Co., abbey nuns.

and others in Cork. Kilbeggan Abbey, Co. West- From the early part of the eighteenth century meath, was founded by the Dalton family 1200. the Cistercian order in Ireland seems to have Abbot William became Bishop of Clonmaconoise ceased to exist. Its revival dates from the founda- in 1298. Graiguemanach Abbey, Co. Kilkenny, was tion of Mt. Melleray Abbey, Cappoquin, Co. Water- founded in 1204 from Stanley Monastery, England, ford, in 1832. The foreign religious of the Cistercian It is related that twelve monks with the prior (the Abbey of Melleray in France were forced to sepa- abbot had just died) were slain, because they rate from their brethren, through the hostility of would not take off their ecclesiastical vestments the French authorities, and the predominance of and yield obedience to Elizabeth. Woney Abbey, the Irish section in that community gave good Co. Limerick, founded 1206 by the Butler family, hopes of a successful foundation in their native was formerly Savignian. Abbeylaragh or Granard, land, which alone at that time seemed to preseni; Co. Longford, was founded in 1214 by Richard a congenial soil and welcome atmosphere for such Tuile, Baron Palatine of Moyashel. In 1315 a purpose. Principally through the instrumentality Edward Bruce burned the town and despoiled the of Dom Vincent Ryan, then prior of Melleray, this abbey. In this place a monastery had already been work was immediately undertaken, and in company founded by St. Patrick. The first abbot whom with another religious Brother Malachy set out for St. Patrick ai)pointed was St. Guasacht, son of Ireland to begin his task. After many labors and Milcho, who is called a saint, St. Patrick's old hardships these zealoiis pioneers found a holding master. In 1308 Abbot Peter became Bishop of in Rathmore, Co. Kerry, through the influence of Clonmacnoise, and in 1541 Richard, the last abbot. Rev. Mother Kelly of the Presentation Convent was raised to the see of Ardagh. Moycoscane, Co. in Killamey and her nephew. Later on the Irish Derry, was founded in 1218. John, third abbot, members of the French community arrived, and became Bishop of Den^ in 1401. Tracton Abbey, once again regular Cistercian life began in Ireland. Co. Cork, was erected in 1225 by the MacCarthy Subsequently, in 1832, through Sir Richard Keane, family. There was a relic of the true Cross here, who held extensive property in the Cappoquin dis- which was venerated by great crowds on Holy trict, Dom Vincent succeeded in obtaining posses- Thursday. Hore Abbey, Co. Tipperary, formerly sion of the present holding, which he called Mt. Benedictine, became Cistercian in 1272 at the in- Melleray, from the mother-house in France. By stance of MacCarvill, Archbishop of Cashel. There the labors of the monks it was transferred from were also monasteries at: Monkstown, Co. Dublin; a rough barren mountain to a fertile and delightful Athlone, Co. Roscommon; Helfothur, Co. Donegal; region.

Juchrie, Co. Cork; Abbeyfeale, Co. Limerick; and Since Dom Vincent's time up to now Cistercian

at Kilkenny; but very httle is known about them, life has continued in this place, even as of old in

Two Cistercian convents of nims are known to Boyle and Mellifont. There is a flourishing com-

have existed, one at Derry, founded by Turlogh munity numbering about 70, almost equally divided

O'Neill in 1218, the other at Down. between choir religious and lay bretnren. Of the

In some of the monasteries the odious practice choir religious between 20 and 30 are in Holy of exclusion from profession on grounds of nation- Orders. Tne present abbot, Dom Maurus OThelan, ality was carried on, as we leam froili the con- was blessed in the abbey church by Most Rev. Dr. demnation of the practice by the general chapter Sheehan, 15 August, 1908. He continues the good of 1323, which issued a warning to all abbots, espe- work of his predecessors in the erection of new cially those of Ireland, to remove all walls of buildings, the enlargement and ornamentation of separation and to admit indifferently all persons, portions of the original edifice, and the furthering no matter of what nation. The evil practice here of virtue and learning among the brethren. A condemned seems to have originated with houses notable feature of Mt. Melleray is the up-to-date of English monks in Ireland, as we gather from school which provides the youth of L'eland, to the the complaint of the Irish chiefs in their letter to number of about 200, with a thorough and excellent John XaII. In 1638 the Irish Cistercians estab- education. The greater number of the students are lished a congregation known as that of Sts. Bernard aspirants to the priesthood. A large number of and Malachy in connection with the new observance students are prepared as well for civil and corn- founded by de Vargas. Among the Cistercian mercial posts, while special attention is devoted to abbots those of Mellifont, St. Mary's in Dublin, agriculture. Mt. Melleray counts three filiations: