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pennission of the Holy See, nor may they act as He relieved the Sisters of the odious task of beg- notaries or scriveners, except in ecclesiastical pro- ging alms for their charitable projects, and b^ the ceedings, or accept a public office which entails appointment of a superintendent for the pnmary lay jurisdiction or admmistration; they must not schools aided them m bringing order into texts, engage in secular business or accept lay positions curriculum and methods of instruction. Bishop in which they should have to render a public ac- Farrelly died at the age of sixty-five in Knoxville,

counting, imless the ordinary authorizes them; Tennessee, on 12 February, 1921. He was succeeded

neither may they act as advocates or procurators on 16 June of the same year by Rt. Rev. Joseph

in civil courts, unless in protection of their own or Schrembs, transferred from Toledo, where he had

their church's interests, nor may they take part in served as first bishop of the new see from 11

secular criminal trials even by giving evidence, ex- August, 1911. Bom in Ratisbon, Germany, in 1886,

cept in case of necessity, if the defendant would be he studied under the Sulpicians in Montreal, was

liable to severe personal punishment. They must ordained in 1888 and incorporated into the diocese

not seek or accept legislative rank, such as that of of Grand Rapids as rector of St. Mary's Church,

senator or deputy, without leave of the Holy See in After being named a prelate of the Holy See 25

places where a pontifical prohibition is in force, or January, 1906, he was appointed titular Bishop of

in other places unless they Imve received the per- Sophene and auxiliary at Grand Rapids 8 January,

mission both of their own ordinary and of the ordi- 1911.

nary of the place where the election is to be held. In a polyglot population of half a million, drawn

Finally, they are forbidden to be present at dances, from sixteen different nationalities, the diocese has

pageants, and shows, where their presence would be 329 secular priests, and 98 regulars with 50 lay

unbecoming or would cause scandal, especially if brothers, besides 25 Brothers of Mary, The Sisters,

they are held in public theaters. distributed through 20 commimities, count 1690

Codex jut. can,, 108-486; VBicaucH-CiiuBBK, Efnt. jur. members. Of the 205 residential parishes, 147 have

can., 184-207. their own schools and teach the elementary branches

Clermont (Clermont-Ferrand), Diocssb op to 56,349 pupils. Th^ diocese has a seminary at (Claromontensib: cf. C. E., IV-53d), comprising Cleveland which, though now exclusively theo- the department of Puy-de-D6me, France^ suffragan logical, has, by its nearness to the higher schools, of Bourges. Rt. Rev. Pierre-Marie Belmont, bom in drawn candidates with a steady increase. Of all Lyons 1838, was appointed to this see 19 January, the secular priests now in the diocese, two-fifths 1893, and filled it until his death, 19 March, 1921. were ordained from the diocese under the adminis- He was succeeded by his auxiliary, the present in- tration of Bishop Farrelly. There are now 100 cumbent, Rt. Rev. Prancisque Mamas, bom in students for the priesthood, 58 in theology at Lyons 1859, served as vicar general of Osaka, Japan, Cleveland and most of the rest in philosophy at made an honorary chamberlain 1907, prothontary St. Bernard's. Rochester, New York. Twenty apostolic 1916, appointed titular Bishop of Sura and academies and high schools give secondary educa- coadjutor, with right of succession, at Clermont, ^^on to 1513 boys and 2959 girls. In addition there 10 March, 1919. Since 1894 the titular of this see are 2 colleges for boys. For the service of the sick has had the privilege of wearinr: the pallium. The there are 8 hospitals with a total of 1300 beds; for 1920 statistics credit the diocese with 525,916 Cath- dependents there are 7 asylums and 4 homes; for olics, of whom 65,386 are in Clermont-Ferrand other chantable charges there are 3 refuges, 1 settle- proper, 5 first class parishes, 447 succursal parishes, ment house and 1 day nursery. In recent years and 175 vicariates formerly supported by tne state, the diocese lost three prominent members of its

^ , ^ ^ ^ cleigy by the deaths of Msgr. Houck, chancellor

Olerelaad, Diocbsb op (Clevelandensis; cf. C. of the diocese for thirty-five years; Father Boff,

E., IV-55a), comprises 8034 sq. miles in the State seven times administrator of the diocese; and

of Ohio, U. S. A., and is suffragan of the Arch- Father Moes, rector of the seminary for a number

diocese of Cincinnati. Almost a year after the of years, death of Bishop Horstmann, 13 May, 1908, Mgr.

John Patrick Farrelly, spiritual director of the Clifton, Diocese op (Cuptoniensis; cf. C. E.,

American College in Rome, was consecrated his IV-n58c), England, was left vacant for a long time

successor by Cardinal Gotti in the chapel of that upon the death of Bishop Burgess, second bishop

college, on 1 May, 1909. His diocese was divided of the diocese, owing to a controversy which was

along the west line of Erie, Huron, and Richmond going on over the ute of the seminary of Prior

counties, separating sixteen counties to create the Park, the crux of the infant diocese. During this

Diocese of Toledo, 15 April, 1910. The services of period the administration of the diocese was given

Rt. Rev. Joseph Mary Koudelka, who had been provisionally to Archbishop Errington, coadjutor

made auxiliary bishop for the Slavs in 1908, were to Cardinal Wiseman. After the closing of Prior

transferred to the see of Milwaukee in 1911, and Park in 1856 a new bishop was appoint^ in 1857,

two years later he was named second bishop of and the work of the diocese proceeded as usual.

Superior on 6 August, 1913. Prior Park was re-opened in 1867, but was finally

Bishop Farrelly followed a deliberate rather than closed in 1904 and is now the property of the Irish

strenuous policy, and the benefit of his cautious Christian Brothers, who use it lor an industrial

statesmanship was felt only - gradually. His in- school. The present Bishop of Clifton, Rt. Rev.

fluence, nevertheless, was progressive and profound. George Ambrose Burton, was consecrated 1 May,

His artistic taste had something to do with the 1902. At the present time (Ifi^l) the diocese in-

fact that the best architecture of the diocese, in eludes 42 parishes, 52 churches, 20 missionary sta-

churches, schools, and hospitals, belongs to his tions, 1 abbey for men, 5 convents for men and 37

eleven years. His special pride was the Cathedral for women, 49 secular priests and 84 re^arsĀ ; these

Latin School which he built himself in 1918, and latter include the Benedictines, Carmelites, Domin-

which now accommodates 750 students. He made icans, Jesuits, and Franciscans. The Franciscans

a larger use of native priests in bilingual congre- include both Observants and Conventuals,

gations, reorganized the charities of the diocese There are 20 high schools, 35 elementary schools,

imder a clencal director, and availed himself of 3 industrial schools, 10 homes, 1 reformatory school,

efficient lay co-operation in caring for dependents, and 13 hospitals. All the public institutions per^