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Sabatini (d. 1809); Stanislaus Mattel (d. 1825), any time now; this decree will make the diocese who had such eminent disciples as Morlacchi, Ros- of Campagna self-governing, and unite the diocese sini, and Donizetti; Alexander Borroni (d. 1896); of Sant Angelo dei Lombardi to Conza.

in Franciscan historical stuAes. In the field of S^Sfn'n L2t'rJiZ u^t^* w^!.^iJl?^A^ pedagogy one of the most celebrated educators of fe^^l^^' i^'^^^^^^^ tl^aS^ century was Gregoiy Girard of Fribourg. *? P^f p?'^pi* Z^^^i(^?Jtl^ aZ^ Switzerland (d. 1850), to whom his native city l^fS^ioi? '^n^^t^o?^^^^ l^.i? £n^

erected a public monument. Of painters of recent !^!2f^i;? pf P.Tlnh^^^

note Paschal Sarullo (d. 1892) is worthy of special ?P?^°!*®\StQ ^1' ^°^ Hewey, bom m Wicklow, mention. The early centuriei especially, nroSiced ^^^^^ K^'n^^^fj^ .nnSStif V M«v I^qm many theologians ind philMoph^; in tie nine- J?,*^IJ'lSfr ^^^^^'l'^ ^^^k *^^^^ teenth cent^ died Andrew*^ Sgambati (1805), *4l^*S:5S^°Pf°L^°^^^ Gregory Girafd (1850) and An|elu8 Bigoni ol ?^!rf^2?!!!„ f3^^^ Corfu (1860). Recent generals of the orders are: p?^ Sanmntan (6) are established he^^^ Dominic Renter, of Trenton, N. J. (1904-10). who i**?? .statistics (1921) the vioiriate is divided mto reintroduced the order in Spkin aid Eil^Ind ; Vic If^nrS^'^^T,^',^^^^

tor Sottas of Fribourg, Switzerland (1910-13); and ^,^'?.^^\-^ °'^\^* ^ ^^f^'^'InJ^ «^* ,^^ Dominic Tavani of Apulia, at first vicar general total Catholic population numbers 7,00^^^ there (1915-19), and now mimster general since 1919. a^? I'^OO children attending Sunday schools. Six Contemporary history of the order may be P"maiy schools, which are conduct^m Cook - gleaned ffom its periSdicals of which, for this *<JJ^. ?«>?«'» ^^^ an attendance of 900 children.

purpose, the main ones are the "Commentarium ^ fT^^^i?^ ^^^^^^lAP^Pl^^fiP^Tf^Ju r ^'T^7 Ordmis Minorum Conventualium" (SS. XU Apos- S^ **^« ^^^* ^^^ aJthough the Cathohc «hools toli, Rome), and the "Miscellanea PVancescana" do not receive any aid from the government, state (Sacro Convento, Aaaisi). scholarships may be worked out m the secondary

PuLiGNAMi, n B. Paducei Trinci e i Minori OtMervanti schools.

m'^' v??1' iB?I!!!f^V^}w5 ^F*"^? "^^ /S2?"*^*S!t? Ooppens, Charlbs, educationist and author, b. at

d. una Nuova 8iona deU Ord^ Fruncucano (Perugia. IMl). Tumhout. Belgium, in 24 May, 1835; d. in CticagO

Oonversano, Diocbse op (Convebsanensib; cf. C. OJ^ 14 December, 1920. He received his classical E., IV-346c), in the province of Bari, Southern training in the Jesuit ' College of his native town, Italy, suffragan of Ban. Rt. Rev. Antonio Lam- aJ^i desiring to devote himself to the growing bcrti, appointed to this see, 1897, died 17 August, Church in America, he entered the society in 1853. 1917, and was succeeded by the present incumbent, After studying philosophy at St. Louis and theology Rt. Rev. Domenico Lancelloti, b. at Montegallo, at Fordham he was ordained by Cardinal Mc- 1858, secretary of the camereria, 1904, prelate of the Closkey in 1865. Father Coppens spent close on Holy See, 1908, appointed titular Bishop of Delcos, sixty years in the cause of Catholic education, 29 April, 1909, transferred to Troja, 21 April, 1911, teaching rhetoric for seventeen years at Florissant transferred to Conversano, 14 March, 1918. In July, a^^d St. Louis, and philosophy for more than twenty 1911, the cathedral of the diocese was destroyed years, principally in Detroit CoUege and Creighton by fire, but its reconstruction was begun, with University. His "Practical Introduction to English funds contributed chiefly by the government, and Rhetoric" (1885), a pioneer work in Catholic after being interrupted by the war, it was continued schools, enjoyed immense popularity, as did his under the present bishop. Dturing the World War excellent "Act of Oratorical Composition" (1886); 18 priests of this diocese were mobilized, and the while his "Moral Principles and Medical Practice" clergy at home, as well as the laity, took an active (1898) was the first Catholic treatise in English on part in patriotic and charitable works. The 1922 medical jurisprudence. In addition to numerous statistics credit this diocese with a population of articles in Catholic magazines and reviews we are 80,954; 7 parishes, 130 churches, 7 mission stations, indebted to Father Coppens for several textbooks, 2 convents of men and 1 of women, 100 secular "Logic and Metaphysics" (1892), "Moral Phi- and 5 regular clergy, 5 brothers, 1 seminary, 30 losophy" (1896), a brief "History of Philosophy" seminarians, 1 college of men with 30 teachers and (1909) ; and two important historical studies: "Who 400 students, 1 for girls with 10 teachers and 100 are the Jesuits?" (1911), and "Protestantism, How students, 7 elementary schools with about 60 teach- it was brought about" (1907). His "Mystic Treas- crs, 1 home for the poor, 7 asylums, and 5 hospitals, ures of the Holy Mass" (1904) and "Spiritual In- structions for Religious" reveal him as a ascetic

Oonsa, Ahchdiocbsd op (Compsana; cf. C. E.. writer of merit. IV-350a), with the perpetual administration of Oopns, John Edwin, writer, b. at Guilford, En^- Campagna, in Southern Italy. This see is at land, on 24 January, 1854; d. at Milwaukee, Wis.

£ resent (1922) iinder the administration of on 19 June, 1915. He was bom of Protestant fost. Rev. Carmine Caesarano, b. at Pagani, parents and was educated at the Archbishop Abbot 1869, appointed Bishop of Azieri 8 April, and Lydgate schools in Guilford. After teaching 1915, promoted 30 September, 1918, to sue- at Broughton-under-Blean, Kent, and Western ceed Most Rev. Nicolas Piccirilli, transferred to College, Somersetshire, he became a Catholic in Lanciano 25 April, 1918. These united dioceses 1876. In days ^one by some of his kinsmen had count a total population of 122,861, 37 parishes, 230 gained renown m the Church, among them being churches, 2 monasteries for men and 12 for women, Father John Copus, who was imprisoned for the 194 sectilar and 12 regular clergy, 1 interdiocesan Faith by Queen Elizabeth, and Alan Copus, who seminary, 30 seminarians. All the elementary wrote a "Ssmtaxis historis evangelic®," and died schools are supported by the government. The in 1568 a canon of St. Peter's, Rome. Sursum Corda Association is formed amons the In 1877 Copus emigrated to Canada and later to clensy, and the Unione popalare fra i Catholici the United States, where he engaged in journalism, among the laity. A decree separating the two becoming commercial editor of the "Detroit News" dioceses of Campagna and Conza is expected at in 1882. Five years later he joined the Society of