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and liquor manufacture. There is also an export Supreme Court was asked to render a legal inters

tax wmch, in the opinion of many, tends to dis- pretation of it, but Panama declined to accept his

courage affricultural development. The two per mterpretation; Costa Rica held the Sixolawaterehed

cent tax wnich was levied in 1918 on the monthly and JPanama retained the Coto triangle until the

gross sales of all large business and commercisJ recent invasion. This occurred on 21 February,

houses was abolished at the end of January, 1920. 1920, after which time the United States warships

The largest sources of income are the export were ordered to Costa Rica to protect American

taxes^ customs, liquor, and direct taxes, including lives and property. The dispute was finally given

2% on business and 6% on banks. The largest to the Umted States to arbitrate, as agreed in the

items of expenditures are finance, public instruction, treaty of 1915, whereby Panama and Costa Rica

and internal development. At the end of 1919 the agreed to submit disputes to the United States as

internal debt was $7,440,000, and the foreign debt mediator,

about $14,752,280. In March, 1916, Costa Rica brought action against

EnuGATiON.-'In 1918 there were 315 elementary Nicaragua for violation of her ri^ts under the

schools, the teachers numbered 950 and the enrolled Canal Treaty with the United States, and the Cen-

pupils25,857, the average attendance being 19,672. For tral Court of Justice gave a decision in her favor,

secondary instruction there are at San Josd a A bloodless revolution occurred on 27 January,

lyceum for boys, with 357 pupils in 1918, and a 1917, when President Gonzales Flores was deposed

college for girls with 350 pupils. A normal school, by the military forces at the capital. After the

established in 1915 at Heredia, has 220 pupils, overthrow a provisional chief executive was created

The towns of Cartago, Alajuela, and Heredia have in the person of the minister of war, Frederico

each a college. Tinoco Granados^ who on 11 April, 1917, was elected

Government.— By the election law of 18 August, president. The United States Government, how-

1913, universal suffrage was adopted for all male ever, refused to recosnize his government imless

citizens who are of aee and able to support them- it proved that it had been elected by legal and

selves, except those deprived of civil rights, crim- constitutional means. In August, 1919, Tinoco 'left

inals, bankrupts and the insane. The voting for the country and Julio Acosta was elected president,

president, deputies and municipal councilors is During the presidency of Tinoco, Costa Kica was

public, direct and free. According to the election refused admittance to the League of Nations, but

law of 28 October, 1918, the election of president after his overthrow she was admitted, the fact in

and vice-president of the Republic is maae by an her favor being her declaration of -war against Ger-

electoral college, composed of those who at any many in 1917. Her activities included the placing

time of the election are senators and deputies, and of the waters and ports at the disposal of the

by those, what at any time within a period of six United States for war purposes, the canceling of

months, may have been president of tne Republic, the letters patent of all Germans in the consular

The legislative power is vested in a chamber of service, ana the organization of a guard service

representatives elected for four years, one-half re- along the coast and boundaries as a protection

tiring every two years. The presidents in the last against German activities.

decade were: Ricardo Jimenez, 1910-1914; Alfredo For ecclesiastical history see San Josfi db Costa

Gonzales, 1914-1918; Don Julio Acosta, 1918-1922. Riga, Diocese of.

,,lll"r.Pf^L"^." ^;t^S^^ ^r}y^h ^±^^ ^O^^*- I>I.0CE8B OF (COTEONENSIS; cf, C, E.,

uiK.^^ xviwi, muiuumg wou^i^ii. Auey iiiu«, «« Satumino Peri, appointed to this see 22 October, ab e to read and write and be citizens by birth, ^^ ^^^ transfen^S to Iglesias 16 December, 1920

""t^msZ.r^^OAmy^Tl.e boundary be- ^^^^ ?- nrT^)^.o^fn.^"bv*^r^ tween Costa Rica and Panama which had b^^^ JdStStorTn SfpUroTMoS^I^. (L^^ dispute for many yeare, was fixed by ^^^ Pujia, Archbishop of Santa-sTvwina; By 1920

M^v^^m^^^P^^^^^ statistics this dioLe is credit with 16,000^ Cath-

Monkey (Mpna) Point on the Atlantic follows j^ g parishes, 1 vicariate, 30 secular priests, 30 a ridge of hills overlookmg the valley of the Sixola o;JS^ 6 «*»«,;«i«?o«» o«T ift^i»?,^Ki^ il -jkrj^iW RivCT, westward to MoSit Chirri^ and Mount ^^ ^ seminanam^ and 30 churchy or cl^pels. Pando. Thence the line strikes southeast along Oottoleiigo, Joseph Benedict. See Joseph Ben»- the crests of the Talamanca Mountains as far as wcr Cottolbnoo, Blessed.

nine degrees north latitude, where it turns sharply ^ OotmcUs, Gbnebal (cf. C. E., IV-423).— No coim- south to Burica Point, cutting Burica Peninsida cil is oecumenical unless it has been convoked by in half. West of this peninsula is the Golfito River, the pope, who has the exclusive right of presiding near the mouth of which is Coto. This territory over it personally or by proxy, of deciding what has been in possession of Panama ever since the questions are to be debated, of transferring, sus- Republic was founded, and of Colombia before that, pending, or dissolving the council, and of confirm- The Golfito River empties into the Golfo Dulce ing its decrees. If any of those who by law are about thirty miles west of Burica Point Ridge and to be called to an oecumenical council cannot come, the point where its headquarters rise is fifty miles they must send a deputy and give a satisfactory inland. The river, the ridge, and the gulf coast reason of their absence. The deputy can be pres- form a triangle which is the territory in dispute. ent, as such, only at public sessions; he has no It was awarded to Costa Rica by President vote, but on the conclusion of the council he may Loubet in compensation for a considerable area of sign the acts. None of those who shoidd be present land ^iven to Panama on the Atlantic side between may leave before the end of the coimcil, unless with the Sixola River and the ridge north of its valley the permission of the president, to whom he shall extending west to Mount Chirripo. Nevertheless, have made known the reason necessitating his de- Costa Rica, since 1881, has occupied the Sixola parture. The decrees of a general council are not River Wedge, despite President Loubet's decision, definitely binding until they have been confirmed asserting that the Loubet award was not clear. In by the pope ana promulgated by his order. If a 1914 Chief Justice White of the United States pope dies during a general council, it is interrupted