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preferably persons having a knowledge of civil law ; times guilty of a serious offense, and has been they are to be chosen by the ordinary after con- twice admonished by his immediate hisher superior, suiting the chapter, unless provision for this selec- that is after the first and the second offense. A tion h&a been made otherwise. No one, however, canonical admonition is to be administered also may be an administrator if he is related to the before the imposition of a censure Jerendca senterir' ordinary in the first or second degree of con- iicB in order to give the culprit an opportunity to sanguinity or affinity, except with special permii»- abandon his contumacy and repent. Admonitions sion of the Holy See. In administrative acts of are also expressly required by the Code in pro- greater moment the ordinary is to consult the mem- ceedings against clerics for violating the law of Ders of the council, though he need not follow residence or the regulations governing association their advice, except in special cases expressly pro- with women. A canonical admonition is given either vided for in the canons or where the terms of a orally in presence of the chancellor or other curial foundation require their consent. The members of official or of two witnesses, or by registered letter, the coimcil must bind themselves by oath in pres- a record of the admonition being preserved in the ence of the ordinary to be faithful and diligent in archives. It may also be public or secret ; if public, this discharge of their duties. it should be given before a notary or two witnesses.

In addition to this diocesan council, the ordinary or by letter, but in this case there should be docu-

is to name a council to administer the property mentary evidence of the receipt and of the contents

belonging to churches or holy places, if admimstra- of the letter, tors have not been provided by the law or the

terms of the foundation. They hold office nominally Adolescence— Pre-adult life is commonly divided fw.three years only, and miat swear before the j^to four distinct periods: infancy, childhood, boy- ordu^iy or the vicar forane to fulfil their duties y^,^ ^^ girihood, and youth or adolescence. In- faithfully. After expressly or tacitly accepting f^ncy reaches to nearly the beginning of the third <^ce, admmistrators are held to restitution, if by y^^r, childhood to the beginning of the ninth, abandomng it arbitrarily they injure the church, ^^d the next ten or eleven years are divided almost They must exercise the degree of care that a equally between boyhood and youth. However, prudent man would take in regard to his own j^^ y^^ ^q^ f^st hne can be drawn between any property ;^ hence they are to see that the church ^^^ ^^^ ^^ successor. The transition is gradual property is neither destroyed nor injured; that the ^^^j j^ ^ ^j^, ^y degrees that the characteristics reqmremente of the canon and civil law are ob- peculiar to each period manifest themselves. Again aervwi; and tha.t the conditions imp^d by- the f^. j^y^^^ ^e noted that there are in this respect, C®^« I' *°,? donor, or the lai^ul authorities are ^ j^ ^^hers, striking differences between the sexes, fuliUled; t^t the income is duly collected, de- ^j^e races and individual cases. Boys and girls posited, and properly expended, that the surplus mature more rapidly in the South than they do in of the church money is mvested or deposited, for ^y^^ North, the girl everywhere more rapidly than the benefit of the church with the ordinary s con- ^j^g ^oy, and it is a matter of common, everyday sent- that the books showing the receipts and observation that a boy or a girl may be more expenditure are kept accurately : that all documents advanced physically and mentally than other boys and papers dealing with the church property are and girls who are their seniors by one, two or in good order and deposited m the archives of the even three years; this fact is being taken into con- church or other smtable place, and that an au- gideration more and more in the grading of pupils thentic copy of these titles IS placed m the cunal ^y the American elementary schools, archival, if this can be conveniently done. Each period is distinguished by certain character-

Administrators, clerical or lay, of any church, jgtjcg, which are determined by nature and must

including the cathedral, or of a pious place canom- ^ot be overlooked by parent or teacher under

cally erected, or of a confratermty must make an penalty of at least partial failure in their work as

annual accoimtmg to the local ordinary, any cus- educators. Mentally, even more strikingly than

tom to the contrary being reprobated. If by any physically, the child differe from the youth and

particular law the accounting is to be made to ^ust be dealt with accordingly. It is chiefly

others, the ordinary or his delegate must be ad- because of its strong, eloquent insistence on this

mitted to it. Administrators must not take part fact that Rousseau's "Emile" has retained its place

in any litigation in the name of the church with- among educational classics. Unfortunately, the

out the written permission of the ordinary or, in author's views concerning man's nature and destiny

urgent cases, at least, of the vicar forane, who betray not only an extremely poor psychological

under such circumstances must inform the ordinary insight, but what is far worse, an utter lack of

at once. Unless they have first obtained the writ- sound religious and moral principles. Man is not,

ten permission of the local ordinary, administrators as Rousseau would have us believe, at the outset

act invalidly in going beyond the limits of ordinary and for many years nothing else than a creature

administration; and the church is not responsible of feeling, a mere animal, but from the very be-

for contracts entered into by them without the ginning, a being made to the image and likeness

proper suijerior's permission, except when and in of God. Just as the form of the tree and all its

as far as it adopts them. properties are contained in the seed, so the fac-

Administrators of ecclesiastical property are under ulties, tendencies, abilities, which are to unfold

an obligation to see that the employees receive during life, are potentially present in the new-bom

adequate compensation; they must see, especially, child; they all grow and develop simultaneously,

that thev have suitable time for their religious and though not with the same rapidity. Thus, e. g., the

family outies, and that they are not overworked or childls first efforts to speak show glimmerings of

employed in work for which their age or sex unfits his reasoning powers and tendency to imitate;

them his thirst for knowledge and truth is constantly

evidenced by his questions, at time sot embarrassing

Aihnonlt lanfl, Canonical (cf. C. E., I-144d). — Un- for parents and teachers; his social and moral

der normal circumstances no member of a religious nature, the craving for the companion^ip of others,

institute of men, who has been perpetually pro- sympathy, love of justice, fair play, tendency

fessed, may be dismissed unless he has been three to obey, are plainly manifested in play with other