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20 lay Brothers, 70 aisters, 144 chiirohes and occur during Lent. In addition t6 the principal

chapels; the Catholic population numbers 05,273. meal, at which, if the day is not one of abstinence,

Pargo, DiocBSB of (FARcmNSiB; cf. C. E., V-786d), Aesh may be eaten without wi indult, the law of

in North Dakota, suffragan of St. Paul, formerly fastm^ aUows some food to be taken both m the

embraced the whole State of North Dakota. A morning and m the evening, the quantity and kmd

rf the diocese, Rt. Rev. John Shanley (b. 4 January, and flesh are no longer forbidden at the same 1852, d. 16 July, 1909), was .succeeded by Rt. Rev. meal. The chanees introduced by .tfe Code re- Jamea O'Reilly, b. 10 October, 1857, ordained 24 gardmg; fasting do not affect special mdults or June, 1882, appointed bishop 18 December, 1909, obligations imposed by vow or by the rules of consecrated 19 May, 1910. rehgious orders or of men or women living in corn- According to 1922 statistics it has a Catholic mumty withoutvows. There is no mention of the population of 69372, 97 parishes, 177 churches, 79 Advent fast. The Advent fast, formerly observed misBions, 57 stations. 111 secular priests, 1 lay m certam countries, has been abolished. Filially, brother, 19 seminarians, 5 high schools with 503 the law of fasting is bmding on those who hsLve pupils, 7 academies, 26 elementery schools, 1 completed their twenty-first year, but not theur orphanage, 5 hospitals; the ministry of the priests fifty-mnth, consequently a person would not be in public institutions is unrestricted. The Indian bound to fast on the former, but would on the Industrial School, in charge of the Grey Nuns, re- latter of those birthdays.

ceives government rates. The Knights of Columbus • -^„ .^ ^t j u * -^ u *

and various parish societies are established in the J^^xaie, Ubbain, missionary and botemst. b. at

diocese. The men of the diocese were weU repre- ^^^eres, Le Puy, France, on 1 Januaiy, 1847; d.

sented in the service, and 102 gave up their hves ^t Tai-hoku, Formosa, on 4 July, 1915. In his early

for the cause childhood no one suroected he would embrace the

9»^i^^ T ' -kjt i^ J' 1 A uu- u ^* priesthood, as he suffered from an apparently in-

T«av. John Murphy, CjmbMl, Archbishop P^^^te deafness, but on a pUgrim^e to La

New York, b. at Newtown Hamdton, County lo^ Jj^ ^^ miraculously cured through the

Armagh, teland, on 20 April, 1842; d. at New York intercession of St. John Francis R&is. He received

??■}!, lf?**™'^i'om®^*j ^^•^"Tk^j*^ ♦;?» his elementaiy education from the De La Salle

Umt^8tatMinl859.andconUnuedhwedu(afaon Brothers and later attended the petU simmaire

    • ^^*"ll '°^^ Colle«^ Ford^m New Yoric ^^ Monistoxol. He entered the Seminaiy of the

and at the senunary m Troy. In 1867 he entered foreign Missions of Paris in September. 1869, and

the American Colle|ge in Rome, and on H June, ^ ^^^ j^^ oixlained in 7 June, 1873, he set

1870. he was ordained there to the PnesthowL ^ ^ j ^^ j July following. His first assign-

Upon his return to the Umted States that year he ^ ^ ^ j, ^ ^^^ ecclisiastical college at

^ \PPr^t,J2!S!^"*«£^„°'T.?i^*^'°lI"Vl^ Tqkio. A little later he was deputed to aid ineltab-

Archdioc«» of New York. He was appointed titular j^ ^g^ botany repeated once more the proofs

Bishop of Zeugma and f'^^^^jK^ZJ^^^ hv Pven so often by Catholic missionaries that the

A* S^"^?5 ^^' *°<^ o^i^J^^^ & Church, far from being opposed to science, is its

^^^P* CoiTigan on 21 I'fembe'vif'Lr^.w mother His frequent jo^eyings in out of the

'^'^^:}!'.Jt .^i"!Pf^°Fi^ ^'o^^^^^J^^ way places gave Sm unwonted opportunity for col-

xiyvcmuci, xwA*. -U.C woo jtj? ""^Jl"' "* *"^ *^\ hcrbanums m Europe and America; some of these of Cwdinal MoCloskey (New ^^J^^J^^^^^'J^^ bear the appelativeVawnci or Fairiana; as does V t^iffi f r^ VT a^M^ Cathedral, New ^^ Favriajapomca, a new genus discovered on a ^^mBLmvhlaalCvaap^ of the Catholic Hierarchy mountain near Aomorl. Faurie was recognized as of the frntteS«a*« iTM-^SMi p. 40. Milwaukee 1898; CSob- the father of Japanese botany. After his death his noAir, BpiteopaL 8ucce$non in the United 8tate9 in itie Catholic herbarium at Tokio was presented by the Marianists

<Mooo^ j^ i Ljn^ v^Tu^^ %^ -o!^ \M^^^ hoku. France honored her missionary scientist by

^,384, and 50 Jews. T^e bishop, Rt. Rev Marcel- appointing him an officer of the Academy and a

Imo Antomo Mana Franco, b, 17 ApnL 1^1, m corresponding member of the Museum of Paris,

this dioc^, became vicar capitular, and was ap- The salvation of souls was, however, Faurie's

pointed bishop 15 May, 1920, /"^ceeding M£. g^ thought. From 1882 tiU 1894 he was engaged

Antomo BaAoM-Leas t^^^gred to the Bioc^e .^ evanjrelizing the northern regions of Japan-

of Oporto m November, 1919. There are m the Aomori, ^kkaido and the Kurile Islands, seeking

dioc«« (1920) 66 parishes, 112 pnests, 66 churches, ^^^ scattered Christians, and undertaking thi

and 152 cnapels. pioneer work that was to facilitete the labors of

Past (cf. C. E., V-789d).^The law of fasting is future apostles in these inhospitable regions. His

now obligatory on Ember days, the vigils of Pente- perfect mastery of Japanese, together with his zeal,

cost, the Assumption, All Saints', and of Christmas, bore fruit, and where in 1882 there were only a

but if the vi^il falls on Simday there is no fast, few dozens of Christians there are to-day ten well-

nor is it anticipated; all days in Lent, except Sun- established missionary stations. In 1895 ill health

day and Holy Saturday afternoon. There is no forced his return to France. This gave him an

fast on feast-da3rs of obligation, except when they opportunity of conveying to Europe his 25,000 20