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Ullah had assumed the throne but in Kabul the merly German), Sierra Leone, Gambia, and the power was seized by Aman Ullah Khan, third son islands of Mauritius, Zanzibar, Pemba, ABcension, of the late Amir. Aman Ullah soon showed that Saint Helena, and Seychelles, he had control of the situation. Owing to the France. — Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, French West intrigues of the Russian government, the new Amir Africa (including Senegal, French Sudan [formerly did not keep his promise of preserving the friend- Upper Senegal and Niger], Upper Volta, French ship of Great Britain, and in May a large Afghan Guinea, Ivoiy Coast, Dahomey and Mauretania), army crossed the Indian frontier and commenced part of Togo (formerly German), part of Kamenm pillaging on a large scale. Strong British forces (formerly German), fVench Equatorial Afrjca (for- moved up the Khyber and seized Dacca. Jelalabad merly French Congo), French Somaliland, Madagas- and Kabul were repeatedly bombed from the air. car, Mayotte andf Comoro Islands, and Rexmion In ten days the Afghans were severely defeated Island.

by General Sir Arthur Barrett, commander of the Spain. — ^Rio de Ordo and Adrar, Spanish Guinea, British forces. A peace conference was opened at Spanish Morocco, Ifni, and the islands of Fernando Rawalpindi on 26 July, 1920, and a preliminary Po, Annabon, Corsico, Great Elobey, and Little treaty of peace was signed on 8 August. The Amir's Elobey.

subsidy was withdrawn and its arrears confiscated. Portugal. — ^Angola (Portuguese West Africa) » The Afghan privilege of importing arms and ammu- Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa), Portuguese nition from Lidia was also withdrawn. The frontier Guinea, part of former German East Africa known line of the Khyber region was demarcated by the as "Kionga Triangle," Cape Verde Islands, Principe British government. A clause that aroused much and St. Thomas Islands.

criticism was the withdrawal of the stipulation that Belgium. — ^Belgian Congo, and the provinces of the Amir's government was to have no relations Urundi and Ruanda in former German East Africa, with any foreign power except England. Naturally, Italy. — ^Tripolitania, CJyrenaica, Libia, Eritrea, and on 23 February, 1921, the newly independent Afghan Italian Somaliland.

government signed a Russo- Afghan treaty at Mob- Former German Colonies. — Toco (divided be- cow providing for a Russian subsidy for its Amir, tween Great Britain and France), Kamerun (divided for five Russian consulates within its frontiers, and between Great Britain and France), German East other arrangements so favorable to Russia that the Africa (provinces of Ruanda and Urundi under British demanded an immediate discontinuance of Belgian occupation, and Tanganyika Territory un- Russian propaganda in Afghanistan. Negotiations der British occupation), German Southwest Africa have been made for a new Anglo-Afghan treaty, (under mandate of Union of South Africa). Afghanistan has taken advantage of its indepen- Population. — The most recent statistics give the dence, also, to proclaim the first Code of Criminal population of Africa as from 137,(XX),000 to 200,000,- Law, the initial step toward constitutional govern- 000, of which 180,(X)0,000 are blacks. According to ment. the "American Jewish Year Book" for 1921, there

are about 360,000 Jews in Africa, distributed as

Afrtca (cf. C. E., I-181b).— Recent Histobt and follows: Abyssinia, 25,000; Egypt, 38,635; Tunis, Geography.— African territory is entirely under 54,665; Algeria, 70,271; Morocco, 103,712; Trip>oli, European control, with the exception of the inde- 18,860; Rhodesia, 1,5()0; Union of South Africa, pendent monarchy of Abyssinia and the Republic 46,919. The following figures for the Mohammedan of Liberia. In Abyssinia during 1917, 1918, and population, taken from the "Moslem World" for 1919 civil war produced unstable conditions. Under 1914, are the latest available: Algeria, 4,175,000; the British protectorate proclaimed over Eg3rpt in Tunis, 1,660,000; Morocco, 3,100,000; French West 1914 there has been considerable unrest and dis- Africa, 5,705,000; Wadai and the Sudan, 2,120,000; satisfaction, the Egyptians desiring greater inde- Somaliland, 345,000; Egypt, 10,269,445; Zanzibar, pendence than the terms of the protectorate pro- 190,000; total, 42,039,0()0, including those in the vide. A compromise is under consideration. In the interior of Africa. According to the "Egsrptian- 1921 elections in the Union of South Africa the Annuaire" for 1916, there are 667,036 Orthodox secession issue failed. This was a critical event in Copts, 14,576 Catholic Copts, and 24,710 Protestant the history of the country, determining its con- Copts in Egjrpt.

tinned dependence on Great Britain. In Morocco Religious Statistics. — ^The most recent religious during 19i20 there were uprisings of the natives, statistics for the whole of Africa ar# as follows: which were successfully brought imder control by Animists and Fetishists, 98,000,000; Mussulmans, the French and Spanish troops. Melilla was the 51,000,000; Jews (including the Fsdashes of Abys- center of fierce fighting between the Moors and sinia), 360,000; other non-Christians (Parsees, Spaniards in 1921, with unfortunate results to the Buddhists, etc.), 11,000; Copts of Egypt, 706,322; latter, though their losses were later retrieved. Abyssinian Church, 4,CiOO,0()0; Schismatic Greeks, Strong French sentiment in Tangier opposed Span- 3,800,000; Armenians, 14,000; Protestants. 2,750,000; ish propaganda recentlv active there. Extensive Catholics, 2,500,000; total Christians, about 14,000,- railway construction throughout Africa has done 000. In 1916 there were 119 Protestant missionary much towards the development of the continent, societies in Africa, with 1,761 ordained missionaries The countries of Africa are listed in the following in a foreign staff of 4,893, 1,641 ordained missionaries paragraphs under the nations on which they are in a native staff of 29,546, and 726,823 communi- dependent. cants. The important Protestant Norwegian mission

Unaland.—Egyptf Anglo-Enrptian Sudan, Soma- at Betseleo in Madagascar has 24,417 communicants, liland, Kenya (formerly British East Africa) Catholic Miasions.-^mce 1905 the Catholic Uganda Protectorate, Tanganjdka Territory (for- Church has made great progress in Africa, though merly German East Africa), Rhodesia, Bechuana- missionaries still Imve to contend with primitive land Protectorate, Basutoland, Swaziland, Union of barbarity in some localities, as in Bahr-el-Gazal South Africa (including Cape of Good Hope, Natal, (the Sudan), the prevalence of slavery often prac- the Transvaal, and Orange Free State), with a man- ticed secretly under the guise of religious ritual or date over former German Southwest Africa, Nigeria, business transactions, the custom of polygamy diffW with a strip of Kamerun (formerly German) along cult to abolish because of the desirable price" a its southern border, Gold C3oast, part of Togo (for- bride brings her father's household, sorcery, the