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which elects the mayor. The canton, which is the financial requirements of the cotmtry being pro- generally composed of 12 communes, is the seat vided for by votes of credit. For 1918, 1919, and of a justice of the peace, but is not an administra- 1920, budgets were introduced. In 1918 the military tive district. The districts* or arrondissements have and special expenditure was 44,047,748,089 francs; an elected council, with as many members as there in 1919, it was Z5JSilJ3S9fiG2 francs: the total ex- are cantons. penditure in 1918 was 54.537,105,100 francs ; in 191^

JusncD.— The Courts of lowest jurisdiction are 49,026,587,140 francs. Tne French budget of 1922 those of the justices of the peace in each canton, provided for appropriations and revenue of 24,700,- The Correctional Courts pronounce on all the 000,000 francs, the principal items of expenditure graver offences; each includes three judges belong- being: service of public debt, 12,053,000,000 francs; ing to tribunals of first instance. The Court of military expenditures, 3,709,000,000 francs; naval A^zes is assisted by 12 jurors and decides the expenditures, 844,000,000 francs; other executive de- guilt of the persons concerned. The highest courts partments, 5,224,000,000 francs; administration of are the 26 Courts of Appeal, and one Court of monopolies and tax collecting, 2,475,000,000 francs. Cassation for criminal cases. In each arroncUsse- The special budget is estimated at 14,000,000,000 ment there is a tribunal of first instance. For francs, of which 8,000,000,000 are to be spent on commercial cases there are Tribimals of Commerce reconstruction, 4,000,000,000 on pensions, and 2,000,- and Councils of Experts. All judges are nominated 000,000 on interest on reconstruction loans, which by the President of France and can be removed it is the intention of Fhince to meet by Germany's only by a decision of the Court of Cassation. reparation payments. The principal items of

Colonies .—The colonies and dependencies of revenue are as follows: Taxes and recepits, 15,663,-

France, including Algeria and Tunis, have an area 000,000 francs; monopolies and state industries,

of about 5,119,138 sq. miles, with a population of 2,911,000,000 francs; war profits tax, 3,050,000,000

about 53,582,905. Algeria, however, is not regarded francs; and liquidation of war stocks, 500,000,000

as a colony, but as a part of France; and Tunis francs. On 1 October, 1921, the public debt stood

and Morocco are attached to the Mimstiy of For- as follows: internal debt, 237,867,000,000 francs

eign Affairs. The administration of the colonies (paper); and external debt, 86,000,000,000 francs

is directed by the Ministry of Colonies. Some (paper); 35,525,000,000 francs (gold). Of the latter.

or deputies and other officials. Some colonies nave Algerian budget showed a deficit for the first time

a revenue sufficient for the cost of administration, in years.

In 1919 France spent on the colonial services 201,- Rbcbnt Histort. — When Germany declared war 835,110 francs, of which 18,001,210 francs were for on Russia in July, 1914, she demanded to know civil administration, 173,791,000 francs for military the attitude of France in eighteen hours, instructing services, and 10,042,900 francs for penitentiary the German ambassador in the event of the French services. The most recent acquisitions of Fhince Government's repudiation of its alliance with Russia are: the Niger Territory, acquired in 1912; to demand that the fortresses of Toul and Verdun Kamerun and Togo, acquired in 1919 under a man- be handed over to Germany for the duration of the date of the Lea^e of Nations, the protectorate war. The French Government gave a non-com- of Morocco, acquired in 1912, Mayotte and Comoro mittal answer to the German ultimatum and began Islands in 1914. The French Sudan Territory was mobilization. On 3 August, 1914, Germany de- made a colony in 1920; the Upper Volta in 1919; clared war on France. The attitude of France Mauritania and Chad in 1920. In 1918 the imports upset the calculations of her enemies. They had and exports of the various dependencies of France counted on two great causes of her inferiority, showecf a value of 2,412,227,827 francs (imports, want of artillery, and internal disturbance. The 1,287,276,937 francs; exports, 1,124,950,890 francs), first deficiency was remedied by the hasty produc- During the war the colonies contributed largely to tion of howitzers and long range cannon in addition the success of France, for on 1 July, 1918, they had to her light artillery guns, the manufacture of which furnished 1,918,000 men, of whom 680,000 took had been carried on in secrecy. Internal distur- active part in the fighting. Algeria contributed bances disappeared before the common danger and 510,000,000 francs toward the cost of the struggle, the solid unity of the nation gave birth to that

By a decree of 29 June, 1919, the Ministiy of immortal "spirit of France," which was to sustain the Colonies was reorganized. In 1911 the service her during the fateful years ahead. The Chambers had been divided geographically, but was found at once authorized the Government to issue degrees inadequate and cumbersome. The new decree of in Council of State opening the supplementary and 1919 removed the administrative services, attached extraordinary credits required for the defense of them to a general agency of the colonies; re- the nation, and decided to remain in continuous grouped the colonies according to the conditions session. The French plan of defense had been prevailing in them instead of geographical vicinity, originally based on the assumption that the neu- and established new technical services for banks, trality of Belgium and Luxemburg would be re- education, economic questions, merchant marine, spected. The eastern half of the frontier, from and justice. Luxemburg to Switzerland was defended by the

Finance.— The financial position of France Voeges Mountains and by a line of fortified towns

(1922) is rather serious. Expenditure exceeds from Verdun through Toul and Epinal to Belfort.

revenue; the public debt is colossal and the tax French Flanders was at the very first left unde-

burdens are very heavy. Before the war the public fended.

expenditure of the State approximated 5,200,()00,000 As events proved, the Germans poured through

francs; in 1915 it was 22,804,000,000 francs; in 1916, Belgium and Luxemburg, violating the neutrality

32,945,000,000 francs; in 1917, 41,679,000,000 francs; of the latter. Fortunately for France, the Belgians

in 1918, 54,537,000,000 francs. Since the war ended, resisted and gave the French troops time to

the expenditures have increased slightly. For 1919, mobilize. The Germany army of invasion advanc^

49,029,000.(XX) francs were voted in appropriations, upon France in three grand divisions, the right

BVom 1914 to 1917 there were no annual budgets, wing attempting to enter Fhince at Maubeuge,