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OEBMANT 339 OEBMANT

bers of their respective governments. All Bills re- their First Communidn, an increase of 17,132 com-

<liiire the assent of the Reichsrat before they are pared with the ineceding year. The total number

introduced into the Jieichatag. There is provision of communions for the year was 189,072,854. About

for a budget system, which is compulsory, and for 12,000,000 Catholics made their Easter duty, or

referendum elections. All Germans are declared more than 75 per cent of all those under obligation

equal before the law and all privileges or disadvan- to do so. Conversions numbered 9351, which was

tages of birth, class, or creea are abolished. Free- 1552 in excess of those reported in 1919. The Saar

dom of speech and of the press and religious liberty District, now under Frencn control, has 142 parishes

are guaranteed. The State church is abolished, with 21 curacies, 293 secular priests, and a Catholic

Labor power is placed under the special protection population of 507,831.

of the nation and the right of combination for the It is an undeniable fact that in Germany since defense and promotion of labor and economic con- the war there has been a marked movement towards ditions is guaranteed. A comprehensive system of the Catholic Church. Since the downfall of the labor insurance is provided for — health, mother- empire Protestantism has no official head, and sin- hood, unemployment, old age, and industrial. A cere Protestants feel the lack of any supreme and National Economic Coimcil is established to pass final authority. (See Evangeucal Church.) The on drafts of social, political, and economic political disinterested motives and impartial conduct of the laws of fundamental importance. Each state ob- Sovereign Pontiff in endeavoring to secure peace, tains a republican constitution. the close contact brought about by the war between

During 1920 the German Assembly worked on the the Catholic army chaplain and the Protestant new constitution, while the state was swept by minister, the devotion of the priests to all, whether serious political and economical disturbances. A they were their own spiritual children or not, have coimter-revolutionary movement under the leader- dissipated anti-Cathohc prejudices that were cen- ship of Dr. Wolfang von Kapp took the Govern- turies pld. Many of the old religious orders and ment by surprise on 13 March, 1920, when the reyo- congregations excluded under the imperial regime lutionists marched into Berlin and took possession are returning. In some instances they are even of all the public buildings, forcing President Ebert recovering their former buildings; the Cistercians, to flee. The coup failed, however, owing to the for example, have regained tneir monastery in resistance of the Socialists. Elections took place in Bamberg, and the old barracks at Ingolstadt, accordance to the new franchise bill providing for originally the Jesuit College, founded by Blessed one member of the Reichstag for every 60,000 votes Peter Canisius in his great work of the counter- cast, on the basis of proportional representation. Reformation, are to be restored to their former In February, 1920, Coburg was united to Bavaria, purpose. On the other hand the situation of the and the new federal State of Thuringia (includ- German nursing Sisters is most disquieting. There ing Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Meiningen-Reuss, are 33,000 in Germany engaged in hospitals, homes Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Gotha, Schwarzburg-Rudo- for the sick, and dispensaries. Many of them are stadt, and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen), was recog- dying of tuberculosis, owing to the hard conditions nized on 24 April, 1920. Northern Schleswig voted to of their service and the inadequate pay they receive, join Denmark, Southern Schleswig to remain German. In one community in Southern Germany having The plebiscite in Upper Silesia on 20 March, 1921, 160 nuns, 70 are sick and there is an average of resulted in 716,408 votes for Germany and 471,406 two deaths a month. There is a tendency to replace for Poland. The peculiar distribution of the votes them with high-«alaried secular nurses. Several im- caused the question to be submitted to the League portant diplomatic and political posts have been of Nations, which partitioned the country so that and are held by Catholics, amongst them Matthias Poland obtained the eastern part, the frontier line Erzberger (q^.), Count von Hertling (q.v.), and being east of the German towns of Beuthen, Dr. Andreis Hermes, Minister of FocS and Acting Glewitz, Ratibor, Guttentag, Tost, and Gr. Strehlitz. Minister of Finance in the cabinet of Dr. Joseph

In the Reichsrat, 1922, Prussia has 22 representa- Wirth, also a Catholic. In spite of the split in tne

tives, Bavaria 7, Saxony 5, Wiirttemberg 3, Baden Center Party caused by the formation of the

3, and the other states 15. According to the elec- Bavarian Popular Party, the former retains much

tions of 6 June, 1920, the Reichstag is composed of of its power. Though Catholics are still deprived

113 Majority Socialists, 81 Independent Socialists, of many of the rights taken from them by the

69 Center Party, 66 German National People's German Nationalists under Bismarck, they hope to

Party, 62 German People's Party, 45 German regain them in the near future. There is a splendid

Democratic Party, 20 Bavarian People's Party, and spirit of organization amongst Catholic young

10 minor parties; total, 466. people.

Thb Church.— The Constitution of the new Re- In 1920 Germany was given the rank of Apostolic

public of Germany provides for entire liberty of nunciature with Mgr. Pacelli, titular Archbishop of

conscience and for complete equality among all Sardes, as nuncio. The Ambassador Extraordinary

religious denominations. According to a statistical and Minister Plenipotentiary representing Ger-

survey for 1920, published by the Bureau of many in Rome is Dr. Jacobus von Bergen. The

Statistics of Cologne and covering Germany, in- embassy was formerly the Prussian legation. For

eluding Polish Upper Silesia but excluding the Saar Catholic statistics see articles on the archdioceses

District, the total Catholic population was 20,822- and dioceses of Germany. 503. To provide for the spiritual wants of this

great number there were 19,076 secular priests, or Oermany, Northern Missions op, Vicarutb one priest for every 1346 Catholics. There were Apostolic or (cf. C. E., VI-529a). — In the broad 258,366 Catholic marriages, and 29,658 mixed mar- sense the jurisdiction of this Vicariate Apostolic riages, in 11,436 of whicn the husbands were Cath- covers the free and Hanse towns of Bremen, Ham- olic. The number of children baptized in the burg, Lubeck, the Oldenburger free state of Liibeck, year was 538,248, of whom 38,241 were bom of the free state of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklen- mixed marriages. The children born of Catholic berg-Strelitz, Schaumburg-Lippe, and the Apostolic- mothers and non-Catholic fathers numbered 22,903, Prefecture of Schleswig-Holstein. The bishop of and those of Catholic fathers and non-Catholic Osnabriick is also Vicar Apostolic of the Northern mothers 15,338. A total of 476,389 children received Missions, and prefect Apostolic of Schleswig-Hol-