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live power is vested in a Chamber of Deputies on there were no students, but Archbishop Conan is

the basis of one member for each 60,000 inhabitants, now conducting a theological school for natives and

the 42 members being chosen for two years by has educated Haitian priests,

direct popular vote, and in a Senate of 15 mem- The minister of education of the Haitian Gov-

bers, chosen for 6 years, also by popular vote. The emment estimates illiteracy at 80 per cent, and

president is elected for four years by the two only 8 per cent of the population of school age

Chambers, and receives an annual salary of $24,000. attend school. Against this condition the Catholic

Under the protectorate established by the United Church has labored unceasingly. The Christian

States in November, 1915, there is an armed con- Brothers opened their first school at Port-au-Prince

stabulary, both urban and rural (established in in 1864; of the 300 boys who applied for admission

1916) which is drawn from the United States Marine only 150 could be accommodated. A second school

C^ps. was opened at Jacmel in 1866, in which year the

HiSTORT (1911-1921). — From the establishment of school at Port*au-Prince was burned down. Another

the Dominican Republic in 1843 to 1914 Haiti was school opened in 1867 was also destroyed by fire,

the scene of constant revolutions. Corrupt politics, The Brothers were obliged to abandon their educa-

incompetency and bad faith in public business tional work in Haiti until 1871, when a school was

brought about a deplorable state of affairs. Finally, again opened at Jacmel. This was followed by

in 1915, a new revolution occurred in which the foundations at Port-au-Prince and elsewhere, untO

government of Davilmar Theodore was overthrown in 1881 there were 46 Brothers teaching 12 schools

and General Vilbrun Guillaume was elected presi- with an average attendance of 2700 bo3r8. By 1887

dent. Civil war broke out again in a few months; they were assisted by 9 native teachers. Meantime

the president fled to the French Legation, where the Brothers were suffering untold hardships from

he was killed, and 150 political prisoners were put lack of food, clothes, and books, and many had

to death. The United States intervened, landing died from yellow fever and other causes. But the

the United States Marine Corps to preserve order, work of education continued. In 1^7 there were

In November, 1915, a convention was signed 98 Brothers teaching 5467 boys. A succession of

between the United States and Haiti, and a re- hardships, such as incendiarism and entire lack of

ceivership of customs and Haitian resources for funds, required the closing of many schools from

ten years was established under the control of the 1902 to 1912, when the St. Louis de Gonsague

United States, and a native constabulary under College and chapel were partly wrecked in the

United States officers was formed. blowing up of the National Palace. In 1914, 26

Ecclesiastical History. — Ecclesiastically the Re- Brothers of military age enlisted in the World War.

public of Haiti is divided into the Archdiocese of In 1917 there were 57 Brothers, assisted by 23

Port-au-Prince and the dioceses of Gonaives, Cayes, native teachers, conducting 8 Government schools

Cap Haitien, and Port-de-Paix. Gonaives is admin- and the St. Louis de Gonzague attended by 3078

istered by Archbishop Conan of Port-au-Prince; boys. After the armistice (1918) 6 schools were

Cayes is administered by Archbishop Pichon, aux- reopened. According to a convention signed by

iliary of Archbishop Conan; and Port-de-Paix is the Brothers and the Haitian Government in 1921

administered by Bishop Kersuzan of Cap Haitien. and approved by the financial adviser under the

The Holy See is represented in Haiti by Mgr. treaty of 1915, the Brothers are now receiving a

Frederico Fioretti, charge d'affairs since the papal salary of $50 a month, which will enable them suc-

nuncio was transferred to Belgrade in 1920- cessfully to couyinue their work. There are three

The Church has been the one creative force in Cathohc colleges in Haiti: Our Lady of Perpetual Haiti since the signing of the Concordat with Help at Cap Haitien; Little Seminary and College, Rome in 1860. In a country hampered by poverty, of St. Martial; and St. Louis de Gonzague at Port- illiteracy, and an unstable administration, the Cath- au-Ptince. There are 12 schools for boys, 11 sup- olic Church has striven for education and progress, ported by the Government, and the primary de- The clergy and religious have suffered great hard- partment of St. Louis de Gonzague for pupils who ships due to the systen^ of graft prevalent in the pay for tuition. These schools are conducted by republic, and the extreme poverty of the people, about 80 Christian Brothers and 31 laymen. The In the years 1906 to 1919 fifteen Christian Brothers average attendance at the colleges is 1100 to 1200; died from starvation or its effects, because they had Christian Brothers schools from 2900 to 3000. received no salaries and had no means of sub- The Sisters conduct 45 schools. Under the direc- sistence. Frequently the destruction of churches tion of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny are 21 and schools by fire has been due to revolutionary schools and 3 Government hospitals. The Daugh- incendiarism. In spite of these obstacles great ters of Wisdom have 23 schools and 5 Government strides have been made. This is evidencedf by hospitals. The Daughters of Mary conduct 2 statistics for Port-au-Prince in 1864, giving 14 domestic science schools. The average attendance parishes, 1 annex, and 9 priests, and in lfi20 ^ving at the s;irls intermediate or high schools is 1000 to 28 parishes, 28 priests, and a Catholic population of 1100; Sisters' schools from 4000 to 4100. General 736,920. Throughout the republic there are now ecclesiastical statistics for the Republic of Haiti 100 parishes and 350 chapels. These chapels have are: secular cleivy 152^riests and Brothers of the no resident priest, but are served about once every Congregation ot the Holy Ghost 19, priests and month by the parish priest, or one of his assistants, Brothers of the Company of Mary 18, Christian who spend one to two weeks instructing the people. Brothers 73, Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny 171, To about 100 chapels are attached rural schools. Daughters of Wisdom 203, Daughters of Mary 8. Churches are built by an appropriation of the gov- An event of recent interest was the testimony emment, and furnished by the clergy, which last of Fr. Louis Marie Le Sidaner, rector of Thoma- is a difficxilt task in the face of great poverty, zeau, before the hearings of the Senate Committee Masses are said at foiu* o'clock and at eight, the 2 December, 1921. He testified against the occupa- former to suit the convenience of the noorer people, tion of Haiti, and cited numerous incidents of and the latter for the higher classes. The clergy importance. The temporary chaplain of the U. S. are held in great respect by the people. A semi- Navy and Marine Corps in Haiti (of whom one- nary established at Petionville for native clergy third are Catholic) is Fr. Marcas, C. S. Sp. General has been turned to other ecclesiastical uses, as religious statistics give: Episcopalians 2500, Wes-