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fasted forty days and nights (cf. C. £., 509-10). In At the invitation of the Cardinal Archbishop of

addition he is the author of Ireland's Ancient Westminster three Fathers have remained in £ng-

Schools and Scholars," a work which has enjoyed land and do some parish work among the Belgians

great popularity; A Record of the Maynooth Cen- of London. In recent years the Congregation lost

tenary Celebrations/' and a volume of "Papers and two of its distinguished members : Rt. Rev. Bishop

Addresses." His Irish Essays, Literary and His- Bermyn (d. 1915), Vicar Apostolic of Southwest

torical/' contain invaluable information about Ire- Mongolia and immediate successor of the mart3rred

land's ruined monasteries and shrines. Though he Bishop Hamer; and Rev. Albert Botty (d. 1919),

was conservative in his politics, as in his theology, former superior general. The organ of the Congre-

one of his poems, "Red Hugh's Address to fis gation is edited m Flemish ("Missien van Scheut"),

Soldiers before the Battle of the Curlew Moun- and in French ("Missions de Scheut"). tains," is so full of patriotic fervor that the chil- Daughters of the Immaculate Heart of Mart

dren's reader in which it was printed was banned (cf. C. E., yil-167b). — ^This association is resident

from the National Schools by the authorities. Arch- in six or seven small communities at Peunes,

bishop Healy, as the founder and president of the France.

Catholic Truth Society of Ireland, did excellent Daughters of the Most Holt and Immaculate

work in helping to popularize good healthy litera- Heart of Mart (cf. C. E., VII-167b) .—Founded 2

ture in his country. July, 1848, at Olot in the Diocese of Gerona, Spain,

by Very Rev. Joaquin Mosmitja y Puig, for the

Heart of Mary, Ck)NGRBGATioNS of th»— Christian education of young girls, and approved

CoNQREOATioN OF THE Immaculate Heart OF Mart by the Holy See in 1849. The community pros-

(Congregation of Scheutveld; cf. C. E., VII-167c). pered and houses were established in the Diocese

— ^The Constitutions of the Congregation, approved of Gerona. In 1870 Rt. Rev. Thaddeus

ad experimentum in 1888, were definitively approved Amat, C. M., D. D., Bishop of Monterey and Los

by papal decree, 20 July, 1900. The Congregation Angeles, in quest of a teaching sisterhood for his

came under the jurisdiction of the Sacred Congre- diocese, visited Gerona and appealed to the vener-

gation of Propaganda, 18 March, 1921.' Yen. able founder of the Sisters of the Immaculate

Theophile Verbiest, founder of the order, was sue- Heart. In the summer of the following year a

ceeded by Mgr. Vranckx, who remained at the head party of ten Sisters left Spain, and in August of

of the Congregation until 1888. The general supe- that same year began their work in California

riors since 1888 are : Van Aertselaer (1888-98): Van at Gilroy, the northernmost parish of Monterey

Hecke (1898-1908); Albert Botty (1908-09); Florent and Los Aneeles. The congregation achieved great

Mortier (1909-20); Joseph Rutten (1920- ). The success in the educational field and now numbers

Congregation now numbers 680 members. There about 125 members in California, conducting the

are 171 Fathers in the Vicariates Apostolic of Cen- Immaculate Heart College in Hollywood, to which

tral. Eastern, and Southwestern Mongolia and in the mother-house is attached, two academies, one

the Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Kansu and the at San Luis Obispo and the other at San Ber-

Prefecture Apostolic of Southern Kansu, China, nardino, the cathedral high school and seven

They are assisted by 46 native priests and in charge parochial grammar schools in Los Angeles and

of 122,904 Catholics and 44,201 catechumens, 469 vicinity, the total enrollment in all being about

churches and chapels, and 733 elementary schools 5,000.

with 18,297 children. The three Vicariates Apos- Handmaids op the Most Pure Heart of Mart,

tolic of Mongolia have each a seminary with a a congregation of colored Sisters founded by Fr.

total of 195 seminarians. There are 5 normal schools Ignatius Lissner in 1916. In September of that

with 202 aspirant-teachers, and 10 colleges and year Fr. Lissner gathered together a few pious

boarding schools with 373 pupils. young women, gave them a little house next to St.

In Africa, in Belgian Congo, the Congregation is Benedict's School in Savannah, and instructed and

in charee of the three Vicariates Apostolic of Leo- directed them in the missionarv work intended for

pqldville, New Antwerp, and Kassai, where 114 them. Three years later he drafted a permanent

priests and 47 lay brothers attend 157,716 Catholics constitution which received the approval of Bishop

and 155,372 catechumens. There are 270 schools Keily of Savannah, 12 March, 1919. The Sisters

with 7,381 children and 39 churches and chapels, follow the Rule of St. Augustine, adapted to their

At the hospital in Kangu 250 sick people are at- works of charity and mercy. Their occupation is

tended daily, and 33 lazarets are established, espe- the practical education of colored children, visiting

cially for those afflicted with the sleeping siclmesB. the sick and assisting them in every way if they

In 1907 the first band of Scheut Fathers landed are in need. They carefully watch over unprotected

in Manila, Philippine Islands. They were on their chil(k-en, and provide work and employment for

way to the Mountain Province, to start the evan- them, to enable them to become self-supporting.

geOzation of the pagan tribes. They now number The Sisters at present teach children at St. Mary s

45 priests and 7 lay brothers in charge of about School and St. Anthony's, West Savannah. The

10,()00 Christians and 500 catechumens from the community numbers 6 professed Sisters, 4 novices,

hill trib^ and also of about 92,000 Catholics con- and 3 postidants. Mother Mary Theodore is the

verted by the Spanish Friars and living in the first Superior.

lowlands in some parishes around Manila and in Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Mart (cf. C. E.,

the Dioceses of Nueva Segovia and Tuguegarao in VII-167d). — ^The Sisters' houses in Portugal were

Northern Luzon. They have 75 churches and vacated by order of the Government in 1910. Three

chapels and 56 schools with an attendance of 7,654 new foundations replaced these in 1911 : two in

pupils. At the end of 1919 the Con^;regation sent Brazil (at Rio de Janeiro and Ciudad D'uba) and

a missionary to the Indians on the Mississippi ; two one at Tuy in Spain. All are flourishing academies.

Fathers are established at Philadelphia, in the The nuns who had been secularized re-entered their

Diocese of Natchez, Miss.; and a procurator of convent at Oporto in October, 1920, and at Braga

the Congregation is living in New York City. in May, 1921. A foundation was made at Cambrai

During the war many Fathers and students took in France, October, 1913, and on 1 October, 1921,

refiupse in England, and devoted themselves to the an academy was opened in London. A Mary mount

spintual care of the numerous Belgian refugees. Annex is in process of construction in Paris and is