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decrees of the reigning pope to a general council; interests and social legislation in Germany, and or (5) who obstinately remain for a year under secured the establishment of a Catholic theoloeical excommimication; or (6) who are guilty of simony faculty in Strasburg. He was a foimder and later in administering or receiving the sacraments. If president of the Gorres Gesellschaft and the Ger- persons who are suspected of heresy on being man Society of Christian Art, and was a member warned do not remove the grounds for suspicion of the Bavarian Academy of Science from 18d9. they are incapacitated from performing canonical With Clemens Baumkcr he founded the Beitrage "legal acts," and if they be clerics and do not heed zur Geschichte der Philosophie des M.A. Among a fresh warning they are to be suspended a divinis; von Hertling's writings the following are note- when six full months have passed after they have worthy: "Materie una Form, und die Definition been penalized, if they are still recalcitrant, they der Seele bei Aristoteles" (1871), Tiber die Grenzen are to be deemed heretics and punished accordingly, der mechan. Naturerklarg" (1875), "Hypothese

Heresy renders a person irregular ex delicto; it Darwins" (1879), "Albertus Magnus" (1880), "Aus-

is an impediment to marriage with a Catholic, and satze und Reden sozialpolit. Inhalts" (1884), "John

where such a marriage has been allowed by dis- Locke und die Schule von Cambridge" (1892),

pensation the offspring would be prohibited by law "Descartes' Beziehungen zur Scholastik" (1897-99),

from receiving orders as long as the parent re- "Das Prinzip des Katholizismus und die Wiss,"

mained in his or her error — ^though, of course, this "Augustin" (1902), and "Erinnenmgen aus meinen

prohibition could be removed by dispensation. It Leben." '

also renders one incapable of acting as sponsor or ^esse (cf. C. E., VII-298c), a free state in the

of recemng eccl^iastic^ ^^^^K^ °^ acqmrmg r blic of Germany, has an area of 2968 sq.

or retammg the right of patronage. ^-^^^ ^^^ ^ population of about 1,291,249 (1919).

Hermopolls Magna, Diocese of (Hermopoli- The largest cities are (1919) : Mayence (Mainz),

TANENSI8 Coptobum; cf. C. E., VII-289b), a see for with a population of 107,930; Darmstadt, the capi-

the Coptic Rite, erected in 1895, with residence at tal, 82,368; Offenbach 75,380; Worms 44,290; Gies-

Minieh in Upper Eg>'pt. There are in the diocese sen 33,409.

11 parishes, 11 churches, 2 missions, 3 stations, 3 Education. — In 1920 there were 979 public ele-

convents of religious orders of men, 3 convents mentary schools, with 4282 teachers and 204,709

of nuns, 15 secular priests, 7 regulars, 5 lay broth- pupils; the continuation schools had 28,259 pupils,

ers, 12 seminarians in the national seminary at Hesse had 11 gymnasia^ 3 progymnasia, 3 realgym-

Tahta, 16 elementary schools with 38 teachers and nasia, 9 oberreakchulen, 18 realschulen, 1 agricul-

1130 pupils. The schools receive no government tural college, and 22 incomplete reahchiuen, 7

aid. There are two associations among the laity, higher girls* schools with 4408 pupils, and 49 private

The Catholic population is 7565, of whom 5000 schools with 5029 pupils.* The University of Giessen

are Catholic Copts and 2565 Catholics of other had 2143 students and the Technical High School

rites. Mussulmans number 2,046,377; Orthodox at Darmstadt 2206 students.

Greeks 182,289, Protestants 10,258, Jews 826, other Economics and Agriculture.— Of the area 63.4% non-Christian sects 660, other Christians 1589. The is under cultivation; 31.5% is forests; 5.1% is un- first and present bishop is Rt. Rev. Joseph Maxime cultivated. Arable land occupies 923,403 acres; Sedfaoui, born in Akmim, 1863, studied at Bey- meadows and pastures 252,602 acres; vineyards routh, and was ordained 1889, served as a pastor, 36,087 acres, and forests 599,790 acres. Of the lat- professor at the College of St. Francis Xavier at ter, 186,382 acres belong to the State, 123,155 acres Alexandria, and appointed 6 March, 1896; named to the communes. In 1919 rye was the principal vicar general of the Patriarchate of Alexandria in crop, with a yield of 99,717 tons from 135,070 acres. 1908. This see is titular for the Latin Rite and the The 33,245 acres under vines yielded 7,388,480 gal- present bishop is Rt. Rev. George Glossauer, aux- Ions of wine valued at 213,021,796 marks, iliary Bishop of Prague, consecrated 8 September, Recent History.— Hesse with the other terri-

1917. tories acquired by Prussia in 1866 formed the Pri»-

iTAW^iifKr n«^«r, 1? nr>»T^« ^r^^ n-fv^^i.-^ ^u; sian province of Hesse-Nassau until 1918, when

Hertling. Gborg F. Count von, Cathohc phi- ^f ter the overthrow of the Empire it was pro-

K^fnlr^^lH^nn^^^^^ claimed a State (lander) in the Lpublic of (Ser-

b. at Darmstadt on 31 August, 1843; d. at Ruhpold- j^ constitution was adopted on 20

mg, Bavaria, on * January 1919; son of Jakob DeceWr, 1919, and provides for a Landtag of 70

f^^in^'^^L^^^lSlu?^^^ members.* For adminStrative purposes, the repub-

". '^ -*J* *"*^» **"** *** *w« AAAcu«»^u j^AXMM uvu. ^ ggj communes.

^l^f^ir^^n ±Znnht fn So'S^^^nH'^ li^'^fSsS Rbugion. -Ecclesiastically Hesse belongs to the

professorship m philosophy m Bonn^ and m 1880 Diocese of Mainz (q.v.).

was called to a similar position in Mumch. From -^^^^"^ "* * *" "* ^^ '

1875 till 1890 and again in 1896 he was a member Hexham and Newcastle, Diocese of (Hagul-

of the Reichstag. In 1909-11 he was leader of the stadbnsis bt Novocastrbnbis ; cf. C. E., VII-318c),

Center Party, and in 1912 he was appointed first comprise the counties of Northumberland, Dur-

Centrist president of the Bavarian ministry. He ham. Cumberland, and Westmoreland, in the North

refused the imperial chancellorship when von Beth- of England. The present bishop is Rt. Rev.

mann HoUweg fell during the war, but after the Richard Collins, bom in Newbury, England, 1857,

failure of Micnaelis he accepted. His appointment studied at Ushaw and was ordained in 1885, served

was an innovation, as the preceding German chan- in various missions and was made administrator

cellors had all been Prussians and Protestants. In of the cathedral at Newcastle in 1895, chancellor

his initial speech he discussed President Wilson's of Hexham in 1897, and appointed titular Bishop

"fourteen points," and professed Germany's readi- of Selenus and auxiliary bishop 1905, elevated to

ness for a peace of reconciliation based on a recog- the see 1909 ; the episcopal residence is at New-

nition of the integrity of the empire. Having castle-on-Tyne. The total population of the diocese

failed to persuade the Allies to negotiate on terms (1911 census) is 2,396,380, and the Catholic popula-

of equality, he resigned his office on 30 September, tion is 227,486. The Benedictines, Dominicans,

1918. He was active in the promotion of Catholic and Redemptorists are established in the diocese,