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HUNOABY 384 HUNOABT

to about 23,562, and by present (1921) statistics of the track is adequate only for the requirements there are: 40 churches, 202 chapels, 250 mission of the reduced traffic, and buildings and bridges stations, 10 secular and 22 regular clergy, 1 convent are in urgent need of restoration. Traffic on the of women, 9 Sisters, 2 seminaries, 29 seminarians, Danube is now internationalized. 8 secondary schools for boys with 24 teachers and Finance. — There has been no Hungarian State 155 pupils, 2 secondary schools for girls with 6 Budget since 1914-15. Dunne the war thirteen teachers and 50 pupils, 1 normal school with 2 interim provisions were made for the financial ad- teachers and 20 pupils, and OS elementary schools ministration of a Special Act, but this simply meant with 220 teachers and 2474 pupils. Among the the re-application of the 1914-15 budget. The charitable institutions are 1 asylum, 1 home, and Budget of 1917-18 did not receive legislative sanc- 3 nurseries. tion. The Karoiyi Government (30 October, 1918,

to 21 March, 1919), spent 4,800,000,000 korona (1

Hungary (cf. C. E., VII-^74b), a monarchy, korona=l0^26) and received in revenue 400,000,-

formed in 1918 after the fall of the Austrio-Hun- 000 korona; the Bolshevik Government spent

garian Empire. Its area, formerly 109,188 sq. 4,889,000,000 korona in five months and obtamcd

miles is at present 35,164 sq. miles, and its popula- 473,000,000 korona. The public debt of Hungary

tion, formerly 18,264,533, is now, according to the at the end of July, 1914, was 8,287,800,000 korona;

census of 1921,7,840,832. New Hungaiy is bounded on debts contracted during the war, 32,631,000,000

the north by Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Ukraine ; korona, and debts contracted after the war, 13,^,-

on the east by Rumania and Ukraine ; on the south 100,(XX) korona, bring the total amount of dehta to

by Jugoslavia, and on the west by Austria. The nearly 60 milliards of korona, equal to 7500 korona

principal towns with their population are Budapest per head.

184,616; Szeged 118,328; Debreczen 92,729; Education.— Public education in Hungary com-

Kec8kem6t 68,424. It is estimated that 56% of the prises infant schools, elementary schools, industrial

population live from agriculture and 30% from and commercial apprentice schools, higher primary

mdustry. and primary schools, training colleges for teachers.

Religion. — In recent years there has been some middle or secondary schools, academies of law,

anti-Jewish legislation, prohibiting Jews to own institutions for religious education, imiversities,

or to lease landed property, or to own more than technical high schools, economic, mining, industrial,

one house, debarring all foreign Jews from en- and commercial special schools. School attendance

tering the country and expelling those who had is conrpulsory for children between six and twelve,

entered since 1914, forbiddmg Jews to hold posi- In Olcf Hungary, the prevailing language in 12,503

tions in any school or theater, in the army, schools was Hungarian; in 428 German, in 304

editorial office, or in the government or to have Slovak; in 1707 Rumanian, in 1767 Croatian and

Gentile servants, limiting the Jewish enrollment Seib. In the middle schools the curriculum extends

in the universities to 5 per cent, and retiring or over eight years.

dismissing all professors of Jewish ancestry. For Rbcbnt History.— For events up to 1918, see

religious statistics see Church in Hungary below. Austria. The collapse of the Dual Monarchy led

Eodnomic Conditions. — ^The assets of Hungary Hungary to sever relations with Austria, and on lie almost entirely in its capacity to produce food- 17 October, 1918, the Hungarian Diet declared Hun- stuffs. Owinp to the lack of proper maintenance of gary to be entirely independent, except for the the soil dunng the war the land has become to personal union through the Emperor. On 2 Novem- some extent impoverished, while for want of agri- ber the Hungarian Parliament styling itself a cultural implements and fertilizers production has National Assembly decided for a republic with dropped off. The following is the official crop re- Count Michael Karoiyi as Prime Minister. King port for 1920: harvested area of wheat 1,463,731 Charles abdicated on 13 November, 1918, and the jochs (1 joch = 1.16 acres) production, 7,930,270 republic was proclaimed on 16 November, 1918. quintals (1 qumtal = 100 pounds), maize 1,331,937 Unstabilized, with utter lack of cohesion between jochs, 12,273,770 quintals; rye 877,649 jochs, 4,196,- the various political factions and menaced by the 430 quintals; barley 844,733 jochs, 4,364,350 quin- encroachments of her neighbors, the new Hungarian tals; oats 588,270 jochs, 3,355,960 quintals. An Republic faced tremendous difficulties from its in- Agrarian Reform Bill was passed in December, ception. The Rumanians and Serbs advanced for IMO, with the purpose of increasing the number of some distance into Hungarian territory, while the small-holders, but up to the present very little Czechs occupied Slovakia and the Danube district, advantage has been taken of the measure. The Through these activities, Hungary lost the Banat coal production in 1920 amounted to 4,956,285 tons, region, the great source of her food supply and equivalent to 78% of the output in 1913. Of this her northern coal mmes, upon which her industnal quantity, 4,458,694 tons were distributed, one-third life depended. Meanwhile Bolshevism was spread- used for transport, another third for industrial pro- ing and a Communist revolt under the leadership duction, and the remainder for light, power, and of Bela Kun broke out with such violence that domestic purposes. About 63,800 tons of coal and the Government was forced to declare martial law 151,970 tons of coke were imported. With the and use troops to retake parts of the capital which exception of five small mines, all the pits are had fallen under the control of the rebels. The privately owned, but are under official supervision. Interalhed Supreme Council in Paris decided to The partition of the former monarchy has so far subject Hungary to military occupation and had a disastrous efifect on all Hungarian manufac- directed the Hungarians to withdraw to the ture. Iron ore, timber, oil, hemp, flax, and cereals Rumanian boundary, as fixed by the Ruma- are now cut off from Hungary. There are about nian Treaty of 1916, and established a neutral 4378 miles of standard gauge track (of which zone on the Hungarian-Rumanian border, 140 1861 miles are owned by the state). 1717 loco- miles long and 40 miles wide, to be occupied by motives, 2348 passenger coaches, 1048 luggage the Allied troops. On 22 March, 1919, the Alli«  trucks, and 18,832 freight trucks. In order to meet announced that the Allied troops had occupied the loss caused by depreciation of currency, rail- the greater part of Hungary, for the purpose of wav passenger rates have increased 200 per cent suppressing plundering bands of BolslievikL and freight 300 per cent. The present condition Angered by these actions, Coimt Karoiyi appealed