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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/413

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INDIA 397 INDIA

Duke of Connaught. The visit of the Prince of Council, while on the popular side the Government Wales to India in 1922 was the occasion of rioting will consist of the Governor and Ministers who are in Bombay which drew the attention of the whole to be elected members of the Legislative Council, world to conditions in that country and to the These ministers wiD have charge of certain depart- extensive hatred of British rule. Ghandi was ments of Government, known as "transferred sub- arrested on 18 March, 1922, sentenced to six year's jects," while others, the "reserved subjects," are to imprisonment. The war between India and be administered by the Govemor-in-Council. The Afghanistan was ended with the treaty of peace Governor's Executive Council must include a mem- signed on 8 August, 1920. It began in 1919 with the ber qualified by twelve years' public ser\'ice. The declaration of Amanullah of Afghanistan to free Legislative Council, meeting for three years, con- India from the horrors of revolution and from the tains not more than 20 per cent of official members t3nranny of British rule. Despite the treaty, the and at least 70 per cent elected members and Wazira and Mahsuds, two frontier tribes, renewed exercises general financial control. The provinces their attacks in October, 1^, and since that time &je usually formed in divisions under Commis- desultory fighting has ensued. The war cost India sionere and then divided into districts, at the head about £14,736,000. of which is an executive officer, responsible to the Present Poutical Organization. — India is at governor of the province. The central administra- present divided into British territory and native tion of India is entrusted to a High Commissioner, states. British India has eight large provinces and and a Secretary of State, assisted by a Council six lesser charges, each of which is termed a local of not less than eight and not more than twelve government. The eight major provinces are the members, appointed for five years by the Secretary Presidencies of Madras, Bombay, and Bengal; the of State. At least half must have resided in Lieutenant-governorships of the United Provmces, India for ten years. The Under-Secretaryship is the Punjab, Burma, and Mehar; and the Chief beld by Lord Sinha of Raipur, the first Indian to Commissionerships of the Central Provinces. The ^old office. The supreme executive authority i^ minor provinces are Assam, the North-West Fron- vested in the Governor-General in Council, or tier Province, Baluchistan, Coorg, Ajmer, Merwara, Viceroy, appointed by the English Crown. There is and the Andaman Islands. The status and area of ax^ Indian Legislature consisting of the Governor- these provinces have been varied from time to time General and two Chambers, the Council of State to meet the changed conditions of the day, the and the Legislative Assembly. The Council of State final adjustment being made in 1911 when the newly consists of 60 members (33 elected, 27 nominated created province of Eastern Bengal and Assam dis- by the Governor-General). The Legislative Aasem- appearea, and Bengal was divided into the Presi- bly consists of 142 members, 40 nominated by the dency of Bengal, and the Lieutenant-Governorship Governor and 102 elected, and is presided over by of Behar and Orissa, and the Chief Commissioner- a President appointed by the Governor-General, ship of Assana, whilst the Government seat was This legislature has power, subject to restrictions, moved from Calcutta to Delhi and the city of to make laws for all persons within India and the Delhi with ai enclave of territory was taken under Native States. The salary of the Secretary of State the direct administration of the Government of and the cost of the India Office for other than India. The native states vary in size from petty agency services, may now be borne by the British states at Lawa in Rajputana with an area of 19 and not as formerly, by the Indian Exchequer, square miles to states like Hyderabad as large as After ten years' trial a committee will go out to Italy with a population of 13,000,000. They include India and advise on the success of the experiment, the inhospitable regions of' Western Rajputana, If its report is favorable the progress will ^o on Baroda, Mysore, and Kashihir. The control which until further responsible government is established, the Supreme Government exercises over the Indian and the transitional system of dualism is superseded States varies considerably in degree, but they are by a unified popular administration. The success all governed by Indian princes, ministers, or coun- of these reforms depends largely on the attitude cils. The princes have no right to make war or of the native intellectual leaders. The task of the peace, or to send ambassadors to each other or to government is that of educating the people to external States; they are not permitted to main- autonomy without sharpening religious jealousies, tain a military force above a certain specified The CThurch in India.— There are (1921) 3,000,- limit; no European is allowed to reside in their 000 Catholics in India, speaking more than two hun- courts without special sanction; and the Supreme dred different languages and five hundred dialects. Government can exercise control in case of mis- These are ministered to by priests from thirteen government. Within this limit the more important religious orders and foreign mission societies, by princes are autonomous in their own territories. Brothers from twelve orders and congregations, and Some are required to pay tribute. They have by Sisters from sixty-four orders and societies. The freedom of trade with British India, except in rare national spirit now awakened in India is in one cases and levy their own customs. The political way detrimental to the success of the missionaries, powers of the British Government are exercised who are looked upon as foreigners and share in the through the Political officers who r^ide in the hostility shown towards ever3^hing not purely States. The Governor-General in Council retains Indian. The different pagan religions are united certain powers of control over the Provincial Gov- against the Church, even certain Christians are in- emments, where it is necessary to safeguard Central fluenced by the Buddhist leaders and recognize in subjects or to decide questions where two or more the Church only a vague authority. On the other provinces are concemecl. Certain sources of revenue hand the \mrest is forcing Catholics to better are to be definitely allocated to the provinces which organization, and in causing the crumbling of the will be required to contribute to the Central Gov- Hindu caste system is doing away with a nitherto emment certain annual sums which are to be the impregnable barrier to India's evangelization. The first charge on their revenues. The new Provincial future of the Church in this country will be in the Governments, consisting of an Executive Council hands of the native priests, the training of whom and a Legislative Council, are to be based on a is one of the chief tasks of the foreign missionaries, dualized form of government. Under this plan To that end there are 26 preparatory and 26 theo- official acts will be carried out by the Govemor-in- logical seminaries for native secular priests, 10