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novitiates and seminaries for natives aspiring to Indiana (cf. C. E., VII-738b). — The area of

become religious. The native clergy number 1500 Indiana is 36,453 sq. miles or 23,167,560 acres, which

and are already in charge of three dioceses. The places it thirty-seventh among the states of the

appointment of Mgr. Francis Vazapilly, the first Union. In 1920 the population was returned as

purely native bishop, as Vicar Apostolic of Trichur, 2,930,544.

is the first step in the formation of a native It now ranks seventh in the production of wheat hierarchy, the establishment of which was promised and fifth in that of com and oats. In 1919 it pro- to India by Benedict XV. In spite of divergent duced 46,020,000 bushels of wheat from 2386,000 opinions as to the missions in India, statistics prove acres; 60^5,000 bushels of oats from 1,825,000 acres; that they are by no means at a standstill, and 175,750,000 bushels of potatoes from 100,000 acres; that the rate of missionary progress has increased 60,000,000 tons of hay from 50,000 acres, besides enormously in recent years. The average number an important yield of other crops such as tomatoes, of yearly conversions is 14,000, and the chief means clover, tobacco, peas, onions, clover-seed, butter; of apostolate are educational and social service cheese, poultry, eggs, and apples. The assessed work. There are 28 colleges for boys, 2 for girls, 90 valuation of its farms is $1,089,135,238. In 1917 orphanages for boys and 119 for ^irls, and 100 its total taxable property equalled $2,305,392,201. In foundling a^lums. With the authorization of the the same year there were 31,000 miles of gravel Congregation of the Propaganda children of un- and macadamized roads, of steam railroads 7475 believers are admitted to the schools and colleges, miles and 2463 miles of electric interurban roads, thus procuring for Catholics a social influence other- In 1919 there were 7918 factories representing an wise unattainable and introducing their doctrines investment of $1,335,851,000 with 277,600 wage into circles where they destroy prejudices and make earners. In 1918 the bituminous coal output was converts, even amongst the Brahmins. In fact, non- 28,244,498 tons; its oil wells produced 877,558 bar- Christians form the major portion of the students rels of oil valued at $2,028,129; the product value m these schools and colleges, due to the poverty of oolitic limestone was $1,961,154. of the Catholics. Educational leagues have been Education.— According to the latest estimates formed to help Catholic students, notably that of (1918), the total value of public school property Bengal, which in six years spent 107,567 rupees for is $67,675,607, the number of teachers is 19,928, of the education of 843 students. enrolled pupils 557,376. The state public school

The missionary priests are greatly aided in their fund (including the university) is $12,253,938. The

work by the medical missionaries, whose work in State University at Bloomington now has a faculty

India is the most highly developed of Catholic of 140 and about 3200 students. Purdue Univer-

foreign missionary medical work in the world. Yet sity at Lafayette has J83 professors, over 2600 stu-

there are only one foreign male doctor, four foreign dents, and 29 buildings, the campus and farm

women doctors, and 200 native Catholic women covering 692 acres. It is estimated that by its

doctors. There are many missionary Sisters, how- various courses and feattires including its regular

ever, engaged as nurses in the hospitals and dis- course Purdue gave instruction to about 1,500,000

pensanes. Women doctors are essential in India, people in 1919.

and a movement in their favor has been inaugurated In 1918 Wabash College at Crawfordsville had by Dr. Margaret Lamont, and the first contribution 219 students; Earlham College near Richmond had of Americans to the work will be nn behalf of the 400 students; De Pauw University at Greencastle medical apostolate. The Catholic press established had 1062 students; Butler University near Indi- by the missionaries in this country is well organized, anapolis had 756 students, and Hanover College In 1912 there were 6 establishments and 2 have near Madison had 224. students, since been added. From 1919-20, 400,000 pamphlets A statute enacted in 1919 increased to fifty acres and about 300 works in one or several volumes were the untaxable land on which is situated any build- published, many of them translations into Annamite ing used and set apart for educational, literary, sci- and other native tongues. entific, or charitable purposes, and to fifteen acres

The most significant event from a Catholic point the untaxable land owned by a church and used

of view that has recently taken place in Ii^dia was for religious purposes. All property belonging to

the Marian Congress held in Madras, January, 1921, the Young Men's Christian Association, the Knights

its object being the conversion of India and the of Columbus, the Young Men's Hebrew Association

Orient. It was the first Marian Congress ever held and the Young Women's Christian Association is

on the continent of Asia. A hall was especially tax exempt, as are all dormitories owned by any

built for the occasion, and it was crowded with Church and used by students of any university.

12fiQ0 people of many races. The Apostolic Dele- Sunday baseball is permitted by statute after

gate, Mgr. Pisani, presided, surrounded by thirty 1 o'clock, and not witnin 1000 feet from a church,

bishops and about three hundred priests. It is esti- There are strict statutes against obscene pictures

matea that 50,000 Cathohcs participated in this or literature.

notable demonstration of love for tne Mother of State laws relative to private and parochial

God, which gave a new impetus to religion. In schools are as follows: In every city of this state

November, 1921, the golden jubilee of St. Joseph's having a population of more than one hundred

Cathedral at Allahabad was celebrated. The Dele- thousand, it shall be the duty of the board of

gate Apostolic again presided, assisted by four public health and charities to make a medical in-

bishops. Father Albert, the Provincial of the Eng- spection from time to time of all persons attending

lish ftovince of the Capuchin Order and represen- or employed in or about all public, private, and

tatives from all the Capuchin missions of Northern parochial schoob in such city; inspectors shall

India. Protestant missionaries are active in India, confer with private school authorities and advise

having 125 societies, 50 of which are from the them for the purpose of improving and" standardize

United States, chiefly Baptists. The white mis- ing schools; all private and parochial schools shall

sionary evangelists number 500, the native evan- be taught in the English language only. The teach-

gelists 1500, and native catechists about 7000. There ing of religion in German is prohibited ; no money

are 100,000 Protestant educators, 65,0(X) pupils m shall be drawn from the treasuiy for the benefit of

the colleges and high schools, 200,(X)0 grade pupils, any religious or theological institution; the general

and » Prot^^^Qt population of 2,000,000. assembly shall provide for the taxation of all prop-