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Little, Material for the Iliat. of the Franciscan Province the latter claUSe is nCWl (f) clericS practicing medi-

ot Ireland, 1230-1460 (Manchester, 1920); Macuire, Hut. of • anrcrprv whpn forhiHHpn if dpath results

the Diocese of Raphoe (Dublin, 1920); Butlei, Confiscation J*^® OT SUrgeiy wnen lorpiaaen, II aeam resuiia

in Irish Hist. (Dublin, 1917); Cokoban, State Policy in from theiT action— mutilation IS no longer men-

irish Education (Dublin, 1916); MacManub, &tory of the tioned in this casei (g) whoever performs an act

/jSLl^a^ndoriMof' ^^^* Loc««cTON, The Soul of reserved to clerics in sacred orders if he has not

HsNBT, Evolution of Sinn Fein (Dublin, 1921); Jones, received that order Or who has been prohibited

Hist, of the Sinn Fein Movement and the Irish Rebdlion f jom exercising it, aS a personal, medicinal, vindi-

li'lN^t^VS'-WiVf^ D^; !r»'A%ir»«Srft catory or local canonicT punishment. These of- (Dublin, 1920); Good, Ulster and Ireland (Dublin, 1919); fenses do not beget irregularity unless they are Ltnv, /re2and a ATo/ion (London, 1919); MacSwinw, Princi- external mortal sins committed publicly or secretly

pUa of Freedom (New York, 1921); Malonbt, The Irish Issue „/>.^, K««*;owv, <x«»^*v«- ;•» ♦!,« ««»« ^f K«.^4.;«w, K,, (New York, 1919); Report of the American Commission on after baptism, except in the Case Of baptism by

Conditiont in Ireland (New York. 1921); Martin, Ireland in non-Catholics; mere Ignorance of an irregularity

inMtarection (London, 1921). . --^ . ,. ,ooa\. nm.T^ based on defect or Crime or of an impediment never

Chart, Economic Hut. of Ireland (Dublin, 1920); OBrien, -^^„„^ ^ *>«,««., ^^«,v* ;•,««„«;«« 4.u««» t....,s^,i »•;»;<«»

Eccmomic Hist, of Ireland in the 18th Century (London, excuses a person from incurnng them. Irregularities 1919); Idem, Economic Hist, of Ireland from the Union to are multiplied not by repetition of the same cause,

}!Sj;",n!^dSt'TMi)?"^><iS:iK: M'^dZ l^Uk t™* Zi «.««?* >«» <^ «f houdd^e, but by different kinds of

Industry (London, 1921); Webb, Municipal Oovemment in crime. . , , . ,.

Medieval and Modem Ireland (Dublin, 1918); Hogas, Ireland The following are prevented by impediment

in the European System (London, 1920). from receiving orders: (a) Sons of non-Catholics,

Ireland, John, Archbishop of St. Paul, Minnesota, as long as one of the parents at least remains in b in Kilkenny, Ireland, 11 September, 1838; d. at error; (b) men whose wives are living; (c) those St. Paul, 25 September, 1918. He made his ecclesias- who are still holding positions forbidden to clerics tical studies (1853-1864) at the Little and Grand and who have to render an account of their ad- Seminary of Belley, France. In 1861 he was chap- ministrations; (d) unfreed slaves— these four classes lain of the 5th Minnesota Civil War regiment, were formerly irregular; (e) those who have not during the Civil War in the United States. He yet completed their military service, when it is was then successively Vicar Apostolic of Nebraska obligatory by civil law; (f) recent converts, until and Coadjutor Bishop of St. Paul, having been the ordinary believes them to have been suf- consecrated on 21 December, 1875. In 1884, when ficiently tested; (g) those who are infamous by Archbishop Grace resigned, his coadjutor took his fact, as long as the ordinary judges the infamy to place as head of the diocese, but was made arch- continue— they were formerly irregular by reason bishop only in 1888. At one time there was con- of «nme. .,,._,_ __ .._,_. _„ _ fliderable talk about his promotion to the cardinalate O Donnbll m Insh Eccl. Rec.. XL (1918), 368-76. which President Roosevelt is said to have been very Irremovability. See Pastob. anxious to obtain for him. Ischia, Diocese op (Isclana: cf. O. E., VIII-

Irreglilarity (cf. C. E., Vm-170).-No perpetual If^^j suffragan of Naples, has for its territory the irregularity is now contracted except in the cases {fl^^^^ ^^. !«??»» m the^ay of Naples. The present

mentioned in the Code. The persons who are irrejfu- ^^?P,iJ,^T?^^%?*^*' 10?^/* ^^^i^^T.^

lar by reason of defect (e^^ defectu) are : (a) Illeglti- April, 1861, elected 25 May, 1914, to succeed Rt.

mates unless they have been legitimized or sol- ^^^' Mano Palladmo, who was transferred to

emnly professed; (b) those who^ bodily defects Caserta. On 29 October, 1910, Ischia underwent a

render fiiem too feeble to minister at the altar with disastrous eruption, the damages resulting were

safety or who are too deformed to do so with due ^^,5^^^,oi? ^^ u^^ ^S°^*°^®' ?^- . ^P decorum; however, to exercise orders already re- October, 1914, the new bish(g, Mgr. Ragosta. took ceived more serious defects may be tolerated than Ppasesaon of his diocese. Hw Imperial Highness where there is question of receiving orders; (c) ^^^ ?Tt?'S ^*'^,S?S ^^^^^T^^.V^BOiier of epileptics, the insane, and those who are or have jar died 15 June, 1919. From^ 17 August to 2 been possessed ; if these defects occur after ordi- September, 1920, Cardinal de Iai was a visitor at nation, the ordinary may allow his subjects to the episcopal palace. The seminary was tendered minister again if it is certain that they have been *o the Government for the use of troops, and the cured; (d) those who have contracted two succes- convent of Monte della Misencordia was turned sive marriages whether the marriages have been over for use of the wounded. Asastance was also consummated or not; (e) those who have incurred rendered widows and children of the slam, a eecre- infamy of law: (f) a judge who has imposed a tanate was estabhshed for commumcatine with the death sentence— jurors, witnesses and others are no Pnfoners of war, monuments were placed over the longer mentioned; (g) executioners and their vol- [aUen, and other works of mercy were performed untory and immediate assistants. ^y the clergy and laity of the dbocese.

Those who become irregular by reason of a crime The diocese counts about 35,000 Catholics, 15 are: (a) Apostates from the Faith, heretics, and parishes, ffi churches, 104 secular and 5 regular schismatics; (b) those who have allowed themselves pnests, 4 lay brothers, 12 Sisters, 2 converts for to be baptized by non-Catholics except in cases of i»en and 3 for women, 1 seminaiy with 20 semi- extreme necessity— nothing is now said about the nanans, 94 elementary schools mth 3631 pupils, 4 unconditional reiteration of baptism; (c) those who ^^^^\^ homes, 2 hospitals. A monthly paper, have presumed to marry even civilly, while they ^ Cultura, is published.

were themselves bound by the marriage bond or Iseiiila and Venafto, Diocese of (Iserniensis were in sacred orders, or had religious vows even and Venafransis; cf. C. E., VIII-185b), in the simple and temporary, as well as those who have at- province of Campobasso, in Molise (Southern tempted to marry a woman bound by similar vows Italy), suffragan of Capua. On 26 March, 1916, or by the matrimonial bond; (d) those guilty of the present bishop, the Rt. Rev. Nicolo Rotoh, voluntary homicide or who have efficaciously pro- D. D., O. F. M., was elected to the see to suc- cured abortion of a human fcetus — ^formerly the ceed Rt. Rev. Nicolas Maria Merola, who had expression ardmated foetus was used — and all their filled the see from 1893 until his death 24 Sep- co-operators; (e) those who have mutiliated them- tember, 1915. During the World War the many aelves or others, or who have attempted suicide — good and patriotic works done by this diocese are