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testified to in the publication of the Holy See pupils. The private schools in the same period

"Cor Pa£emum." numbered 646 With 27,657 pupils. The universities

The present (1921) statistics of the diocese show in 1917-18 had an enrollment of 33,798 students.

39 parochial schools 105 churches 1 convent for Besides the universities there are also three institu- men and 5 for women 88 secular priests and 5 tions of university rank, the Institute of Higher regular 2 lay brothers 21 sisters 1 seminary with Education in Florence, the Royal Scientific and 27 seminarians; 1 college for men with 5 professors Literary Academy in Milan, and the Higher Tech- and 80 students 1 elementary school with 2 teach- nical Institute of Milan. There were also six higher ers and 53 students 3 a^lums, and 2 hospitals, institutes for commercial education with 2554 stu- There are two societies organized among the clergy dents in 1917-18; three higher schools of agriculture, and 22 among the laity. a naval college, a school of forestry, a school of

_ _ _ ._ ^ i^ -ci social science, a school for Oriental languages, 3

Ispabaa, Diocesb op (Hispahanbnbis; cf. C. ti^ veterinary colleges, 3 women's training colleges. In

yill-192c).— Out of a total population of 8,000,000 1919 ^ national institute for the instruction of

there are 3500 Cathohcs of the Latm Rite and illiterate adults was established.

7600 Catholic Armenians. Ispahan was erected mto Economics.— The principal crops for 1920 and

a Latin archepiscppal residence 1 July, IJIO, and their acreage is as follows: wheat 11,362,000 acres,

the present administrator apostolic is Rt. Rev. 76,932,000 cwts. (1 cwt.=100 lbs.); oats 1,172,500

Aloysuw Martin, O.C.D^ appomted 11 February, acres, 7,032,000 cwts.; maise 3,753,250 acres, 45,366.-

1922. Under the Latin Rite there are 22 Diaanst qoO cwts.; beans 1,068,000 acres. 6,190,000 cwts.

pnests, 5 stations, 62 churches and chapels, 2 semi- Owing to the great density of population wheat

naries, 65 schools, 38 Daughters of Chanty with 3 has been cultivated on land which would in reality

hospitals, 5 orphanages, and dispensaries. Ine i^ j^^^e adapted for woods and pasture. The

Catholic Armenian diocese, erected in 1850, has 11 average annual production of wine from 1915 to

priests and 4 churchy and chapels. The admini&- 1919 ^^^ 35,628,000 hectolitres (1 hectolitre=22 gal-

trator apostolic is His Excellency Paul Terzian, long)^ and the export in 1919 was 638,911 hectolitres

Armeman Patnarch of Cihcia. valued at 148,097,000 lire (1 lira=$.193). The pro-

Tafw& Q^« Ttto/.o« AifTA ^ duction of olive oil in 1918 was 260,100,000 pounds.

isma. bee Jugoslavl\. j^ ^j^^ breeding of silk worms Italy holds the firet

Italy (cf. C. E., VIII-208b).— The area of Italy position in Europe. Lemons constitute 62% of the

exclusive of accessions resulting from the war is production of citrus fruits. At present Italian agri-

110,632 sq. miles. By the Treaty of St. Germain culture is unable to meet the national requirements

(10 September, 1919) Italy acqmred 7350 S9. miles, of her consumers. In Sicily and the South of Italy

On 1 December. 1921, the total population was the movement has been for the resumption by the

38,835,184, including 1,564,691 persons in the re- community of common land appropnated in the

deemed provinces. In 1917 there were 96,649 mar- past, for the division of the large estates and large

riages, 691,207 births, and 682,311 deaths; in 1918, farms, and for the compulsory occupation of un-

107,226 marriages, 634,389 births, 1,143,447 deaths; cultivated land. Industrial conditions in the past

in 1919, 314,113 marriages, 754,685 births, and 677,- two years have been disturbed by strikes, there

040 deaths. The total number of emigrants in 1919 being in 1920 a total of 1847 strikes, with a loss of was 243,417, of whom 144,524 went to other Euro- a milliard of lire. The last Italian industrial census pean countries or those bordering on the Mediter- (1911) gave 243,926 industrial establishments having rancan, and 98^93 to countries overseas. The num- 2,304,42^ employees and possessing 1,620,404 horse- ber of Italians who returned to Italy in 1919 was power. In 1919 Italy produced 15% of the fuel 89,081, of whom 9025 were from the United States, (coal, lignite, and petroleum) consumed in the

Education. — ^The state regulates public instruc- country, an increase of 11% since 1913. The co- tion and maintains, either entirely or in conjunc- operative movement is spreading in Italy; the prin- tion with the communes and provinces, public cipal organizations are the Confederazione Co- schools of every grade. Schools are classified under operativa Italiana and the Lega Nazionale delle four heads, according as they provide: (1) ele- Cooperativa, representing the Catholics and Social- mentary instruction; (2) secondary instruction, ists respectively, and the Sindicato Nazionale and classical; (3) secondary instruction, technical; the Feaerazione Italiana Generale Cooperativa dei (4) higher education. The elementary schools in Combattenti, which represent the neutral party and 1915 enrolled 3,692,024 children between the ages which have recently formed a coalition, including of six and eleven years, employed 75,993 teachers more members than either of the other two bodies. (17,243 men and 58,750 women), and cost the nation, In August, 1921. the long period of social and combining central and local expenses, approximately industrial unrest, following the World War, culmi- $18,O00,OCM9. A new type of scnool, scuoie popolare. nated in a serious upheaval. Anticipating a lock- introduced in 1917, offers instruction of special and out, the metallurgical workers took possession of vocational character to those who complete the fifth their plants, organized workingmen's councils, and and sixth elementary classes. Elementary schools as far as possible continued operations. On 11 of agriculture, which now number twenty-nine, were September the workmen took over 200 chemical established by royal decree in 1907. The law of plants and several textile mills. The next day the 1912, providing for a complete system of vocational National Labor Convention voted for the organiza- training and the establishment of one elementary tion of Italian industry on a Soviet basis, while vocational school in each commune of 10,000 or those who opposed Sovietism demanded syndicalism, more inhabitants, has not been very successful. At first the Government declared the movement the aggregate expense of $2,600,000 being from the to be merely a new form of struggle between first a deterrent to ths execution of the law. In capital and labor, and one not warranting Govem- 1917-18 there were in Italy about 1235 government ment interference, as long as property was not secondary schools, including 124 supplementary damaged or lives sacrificed, but the inability of schools for girls, with 30,401 pupils, 164 normal labor organizations to agree caused the Govern- schools with 35,228 pupils, 296 ginnasi with 64274 ment to offer a compromise in the form of the pupils, 165 licei with 10,943 pupils, 399 technical "Controllo Act" (1921), a plan allowing employees schools, 122,980 pupils; 87 technical institutes, 26,996 to participate in plant management. It was, how-