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ever, never put in force. The Socialists seceded council, a municipal council, und a syndic. The from the Third International Party and the revolu- sjrndic is the head of the communal government tionaiy movement in Italy, from want of coherence and is a Government official. Each province has among the Socialists, failed to put through a its provincial council and provincial commission, revolutionary program. The lack of geographical, For judicial purposes Italy has five Courts of political, and industrial unity in Italy, too, made Cassation, and is divided into 20 appeal court dis- it impossible. The revolution, in order to succeed, tricts. In 1918 there were 167 central and arron- would have meant not merely a dictatorship of disaement prisons, 70 penal establishments, 34 re- the proletariat party, but a dictatorship of factory formatories, and 8 colonies, besides 1414 cantonal workers of Northern Italy, a condition of affairs prisons. In Italy legal charity, in the sense of an which the agricultural peasants of the South and obUgation on the commune to relieve the poor, the small shopkeepers of Italy would not accept, does not exist. Public charity is exercised by the

Commerce. — In 1913 the total imports of Italy permanent charitable foundations, which on 1 Jan- were valued at 3,645.600,000 lire; the total exports uary, 1919, numbered 29,995 with a capital of at 2,511,600,000 lire; m 1919 the imports were worth 2,627,264,723 lire. On 12 August, 1912, a law was 16,516,600,000 lire, the exports 5,188,600,000 lire, passed, establishing life insurance as a State Between 1913 and 1919 the total value of imports monopoly. The existing insurance companies were increased more than four times, while exports were allowed to continue their operations for ten years little more than doubled. The result was that under certain conditions.

an adverse trade balance of 1134 million lire in Defence. — ^The strength of the Italian field army 1913 increased to almost exactly ten times that at the end of 1919 was placed at 800,000 and amount in 1919. In that year the United States mes^ures were proposed to reduce it gradually to supplied nearly 50% of the Italian imports and 250,000. At the end of 1920 the permanent Italian took in return only 9% of her exports. army numbered 350,000, while the number of its

Finance. — ^The public debt, excluaing short dated total forces, including reserves, was placed at treasury bills but including paper money guaran- 4,163,000. In the Five Power Treaty of February, teed by the State, amounted 31 October, 1920, to 1922, signed between Great Britain, Italy, France, 98,072,000,000 lire. On this smn the State is pay- Japan, and the United States, it was decided that ing interest at the rate of over 3,500,000,000 lire in view of the reduced condition of the Italian per annum. The treasury bills amount to about navy, Ital^ could not be fairly asked to scrap" 9,250,000,000 lire, and together with other obliga- her isiiips m the same proportion as Japan, Great tions of the treasury the total debt probably ex- Britain, and the United States, but could retain ceeds 100,000,000,000 lire, or about 2500 lire per ten major ships of an aggregate tonnage of 182,- head of the population. From 1 July, 1919, to 30 800 with future replacement tonnage of 175,000. June, 1920, the revenue was 8,955,000,000 lire and Recent History.— War with Turkey (1911-1912). the expenditure 21,215,000,000 lire, showing a deficit — ^At the Algeciras Conference (1909) the Powers of 12,260,000,000 lire, as against 20|835,000,000 lire had recognized Italy's interests in Tripoli, as well in 1918-19. The principal items of expenditure as those in the Adalia regions where she had were: army, 9,538,000,0(X) ; pensions and interest on secured railway and incident concessions. Eveiy- fioating debt, 5,207,000,000 lire; navy, 1,222,000,000 where, however, she found her enterprises ob- lire; labor and provisioning, 1,289,000,000 lire. The structed, her citizens persecuted, and her progress principal items of revenue were: government impeded by the Turkish government officials. On monopolies (principally tobacco), 2,443,000,0(X) lire; 26 September Italy sent an iiltimatum to the direct taxes, 2,267,0(X),0(X) lire; stamp duties, 1,378,- Turkish Government concerning her rights in OQOjQQO lire; and consumption taxes (including cus- Tripoli, stating her grievances against Turkish mis- toms and excise) j 1,255,(K)0,000 lire. government in Tripoli, and claiming the occupation

Railways. — On 30 June, 1919, there were 8761 of Tripoli. The unsatisfactory nature of Turkey's miles of railway in Italy. Of these 80% are owned reply caused Italy to declare war on 29 September, and operated by the State, the remaining being 1911. Three torpedo boats were sunk oflF Previsa by operated by pnvate companies. At present the the Italian fleet ; Tripoli was bombarded and taken State railways are operated at a loss, the deficit on 5 October, and Bengazi was seized later. On being due to increase in personnel and to costs 5 November, 1911, Italy proclaimed the annexation of material and supplies. The deficit in 1^0 was of Tripoli and d^enaica. Desultoiy fighting con- reported to be $163,400,000. It is proposed to tinned, however, and the Italian fleet appeared in electrify 2750 miles. < the Dardanelles. On 4 May Rhodes was occupied.

Government. — Italy, a constitutional monarchy, and by the middle of June eleven of the ^Egean is ruled by the king, in whom is placed all executive Islands were seized. The trouble ended with the power, and by Parliament composed of two houses, peace treaty signed at Ouchy, Switzerland, on 15 the Senate and the Camera de[ DepiLtati (Chamber October, 1912, by the terms of which Italy's of Deputies). The Senate is composed of the sovereignty over Libya (the Tripolitaine and princes of the royal house and of an imlimited Cyrenaica) was recognized, but the i£gean Islands number of members nominated by the king for were restored to Turkey.

life. On 1 January, 1921, there were 368 senators ^ The Triple Alliance. — From recent disclosures it and 9 members of the royal family. The new is possible to understand the nature of Italy's con- Electoral Law of December, 1920, made the suffrage nection with Austria and Germany culminating in universal for men and women twenty-one years the famous Triple Alliance. A secret treaty of age. The Electoral Reform Act of 1919 in- negotiated in 1882, when Italy wus full of resent- troduced the principle of proportional representa- ment against France for her seizure of Tunis, tion and the scrtUin de lisle. In the chamber there renewed in 1887, 1891, 1903, and 1912, bound Italy are 508 deputies. The duration of Parliament is to the Central Powers in the defence of the Triple five years, and it must meet annually. For admin-. Alliance. The chief object of the alliance was istrative purposes there are 69 provinces, 214 terri- protection against France on one side and Russia tories or circondari, 1805 districts or mandamenti, on another.

and 8346 communes. According to the law of 4 European War. — It was soon to be repudiated, February, 1915, each commune has a communal however, for when Austria-Hungary desired to