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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/436

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JAPAN 420 JAPAN

only structures left intact. Recognizing as the Pacific and performed special service against the immediate task the teaching of the Japanese Ian- hostile submarines in the Mediterranean, ffuage to native children, the department called for In 1915 China consented to all the arrangements Japanese teachers, who receivea intensive training that might be made in the Treaty of Peace Between in the Formosan language. With the pacification of Germany and Japan bs to the disposal of the n'ghta the island the growth of the elementary schools was of the former, and promised that no other power so rapid that the government could not wait for could establish a naval base on the coast of Fu-kien. the first graduates of the newly established normal Japan then promised the return of Kiao-chou sub- schools and seven times the policy of training ject to the establishment of a Japanese concession. Japanese volimteers was repeated. By logical steps The United States refused to countenance any such the administration of educational affairs came action impairing the integrity of China, although finally, in 1911, under the control of the educational it recognized that by territorial proximity, Japan department of the imperial Government, which is had special interests in China. At the peace con- its present status. ference it was revealed that Great Britain had mado

fx)r compelling reasons of race diversities the a secret pact with Japan, promising her all the practical educational work in Formosa is grouped German concessions in China upon her entry into under three headings, named in order of their the war. The agreement was incorporated into the establishment by the Japanese authorities: (1) Peace Treaty which the two countries refused to Work for the natives of Cninese descent; (2) work sijp. The same treaty gave Japan the mandates for the aborigines, and (3) work for Japanese chil- of Germany's former possessions in the Pacific, dren. In the schools for natives of Chinese descent, the Marshall Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the the six compulsory years are identical with those Mariana Islands. In 1917 Macao was purchased of the imperial schools. Industrial education is from Portugal.

provided for. Only four years' attendance is re- The virtual anarchy in Siberia imder the Bol- quired in the schools for aborigines, the subjects sheviki r^ime, the release of 300,000 German taught being only morals, Japanese, and arith- prisoners in Russia, and the dire straits of the metic. The education of Japanese children whose Czechoslovak army led to the intervention of Japan parents are residents of Formosa is conducted sub- in Siberia. In 1918 the United States, Great Britain, stantially along the same lines as prevail in imperial and Japan sent 7000 troops there, Japan immediately Japan proper. Encouragement is offered to promis- adding 93,000 in order to fulfill -the terms of the ing pupils to proceed to the imperial schools and Sino-Japanese military agreement. Kharavosk was an increasing number of native Formosan students captured, BiagiovestchensK was entered, and Rufulor complete their education in Japan every year. was taken. After the withdrawal of the allied forces

Rbcssnt Histobt. — In 1908 Japan negotiated an the Japanese remained, for the country was still arbitration treaty with the United States and chaotic. The massacre of 700 Japanese at Niko- exchanged notes with the same power regarding laevsk in March, 1920, led to the annexation of the preservation of the territorial integrity of northern Sakhalin despite the protest of the powers. China. The United States proposed the neutraliza- The difficulties created between Japan and tion of the Manchurian railways in 1919, but was America in 1913 bv the introduction of tne Webb refused, Japan and Russia agreeing to main- Bill into the California Legislature were repeated tain the status quo in Manchuria and in case of in 1920, when the people of California refused to its being menaced to take in concert what steps sanction the ownership or lease of any property by were necessary. The treaty of alliance with Great Japanese op American-bom minors imder their Britain in 1911 provided that nothing in the new parents' guardianships. In the Shantung treaty agreement should entail upon the other contracting signed in Washington, D. C, on 4 February, 1922, party the obligation to go to war with a power during the Disarmament Conference, China is to with whom a treaty of arbitration was in force, receive back from Japan the German property, thus making it impossible for Great Britain to be concessions, railways, and all rights in Shantung; drawn into a war with the United States and China is to pay Japan 53,406,141 gold marks as Japan. By a treaty concluded between Japan and assessed value of the property plus the improve- Corea, 23 August, 1910, the Corean territory was ments; Japanese troops are to be withdrawn as formally annexed to Japan. Under its new appela- soon as Chinese troops are sent. In the same con- tion. Chosen, it was placed under a Japanese ference Japan assented to a reduction in naval governor-general. disarmament to ten capital ships. The agreement

J^pan entered the European War at an early between Great Britain and Japan, entered into on date. On 15 August she demanded the withdrawal 13 July, 1911, was terminated. The budget for of all German warships from Chinese and Japanese 1921-22 was approximately $778,000,000 (1,562,000,000 waters and the surrender of Kiao-chou with a view yen), $369,000,000 for armament: army $122,500,000, to its eventual restoration to China." Upon Ger- navy $247,000,000, including $72,000,000 for new many 's refusal Japan declared war on 23 August, construction.

1914, giving as one of its reasons its alliance with Church in Japan.— The religious liberty incor- Great Bntam with the object of maintaining gen- porated by the Emperor Meijo Tenno in the Con- eral peace in Eastern Asia and freeing allied vessels stitution he gave his people was not of such benefit for activity in foreign waters. The Japanese navy to Catholics as had been hoped. The question of CTtablished a blockade of Kiao-chou, and 10,000 religion occupied the attention of the intellectual Japanese troops were landed on the Shantung classes in the Empire, and in 1912, at the invita- peninsula outside the German leased territory, thus tion of the Minister of the Interior, Baron Hara, a violating China's neutrality. A small British Indian conference was held, attended by the representatives force C(>-operated with the Japanese landine party of all religious bishops. The result seemed to be imder the command of General Kamio. After a public recognition of the right of religion in educa- fft??* * a?f Tsing-tao surrendered on 7 November, tion. It was a question of religion in general, how- 1 -iiIj ^5®,^"alties were light; only 248 were ever, and when practiced details were considered killed and 1062 were wounded. In the meantime it was found to apply only to Shintoism, grown the Japanese naval forces aided the British in the more powerful since the Japanese victory over conquest of Germany's island possessions in the Russia, attributed by the heads of the army to the