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JUGOSLAVIA 425 JUQOSIAVIA

the exception is taken against the promoter of a total of 3^01,022,500 francs; the interior debt,

justice, the defender of the bond or otner adminis^ 3,551,791,500 francs. The budget for 1921 estimated

trators of the court, the president of the college the revenue at 3,884,177,798 dinars and the ex-

of judges, or the judge himself, if he be the only penditure at 3,994,366,343 dinars.

one, is to decide. If the plaintiff does not adduce Abmt. — In 1919 the organization of the army of

the proofs which he might give, or if the defendant Jugoslavia was commenced. The strength of the

does not make competent objections, the judge army in peace time is 150,000. Compulsory service

should not interfere unless the public good or the is in force for men between the ages of twenty-one

welfare of souls is in question; under such circum- and forty-five.

stances he not only may but must intervene. Ex- Edtjcahon.— During 1920 about eight million

cept in the case of a bishop who exercises his dinars were spent on repairing the schools; about

judicial power personally, all judges mtist swear eighty in all have been repaured and many new

to act faithfully; this oath involves the invocation schools have been opened. Practically all schools

of God; priests at the same time must touch their have been taken over by the State and in a short

breasts while the other faithful are sworn in on time the staffs and their pay will be standardised,

the Gospels. Judges and assistants are strictly The State pays the teachers' salaries in elementary

boimd to secrecy regarding criminal trials, and even schools ana the municipalities provide for all other

other suits if, otherwise, either of the litigants expenditure. Elementary education is compulsory

might suffer. and free in all the primary schools under the

Codex iur. can., 1608-28. Minister of Education. In 1919 there were in

Jugoslavia, a new State formed out of the com- Seiria, 2129 elementary schools with 3867 teachers

ponent parts of the old Austro-Hungarian Mon- »?« 154,976 pupils, also 49 colleges for boys, 6 for

archy, consisting of Croatia, Slovakia, Dalmatia, «i"S» and 2 modern schools. There were 158

Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kamiola, special schools for ilhterates and 9 higher elemen-

Karinthia, Styria, Istria, Gorizia-Gradisca, Quamero ^^ schools. In 1920 Belgrade University had

Islands, southern Hungary (Banat, Batchka, and an enrolment of 80 professors and 7250 students. In

Baranya). The area is about 95,628 sq. miles. The **?»* year a new university was established at

population in 1920 was 11,590,000 divided as fol- Ijubliana. Medical faculties have been established

lows: Servia (limits of 1914) 4,157,000; Monte- a* Belgrade; a philMophical facultv at Skoplje and

negro 173,000; Bosnia-Herzegovina 1,877,000; Croatia a law faculty at Subotica are branches of the

2,592,000; Slovenia 1,056,000; Batchka 836,000; Belgrade Umyersity. Eight milhon dinars are snent

Banat 480,000; Dalmatia 301,000; Madjoumourie, annually m the country on students' scholarships

VegUa, 118.000. The principal towns (1919) are: and seven miUions for students studying abroad

Belgrade (120,000 inhabitants), Zagreb (Agram) "n^er chairs non-existent m the KiMdom. The

80,000; Ljubliana (Laibach) 60,000: Sarajevo 50,000; pew constitution of Jugoslavia provides that re-

Novi Sad 40,000; Spert 30,000; Nish 24,949 (1910). H^^^ instruction be given according to the ^sh

EooNOMiC8.~The total production of wheat in 9V^« Parents or guardians; the pupfls are divided

Jugoslavia in 1919 was 24,694,726 cwts. (1 cwt. = 100 "^to groups according to their confession and m

lbs.), of barley 4,251,692 cwts.; of oats 6,164,247 harmony with their rehgious beliefs,

cwts.; of maize 36,575,315 cwts; potatoes 15,136,749 . GovraNMBNT.—The new constitution, which went

cwts. In 1920 the output of sugar was 35,000 metric into effect on 28 June, 1921, owes a great deal

tons. There are about 4,940,000 acres of vineyards to the Servian constitution of 1888, which was

in the country and the production of wine is about re-enacted m 1903. According to ite provisions,

66,000,000 gallons yearly, of which quantity two- Jugoslavia is a constitutional monarchy, with the

thirds is consumed in the country and the rest Crown passing m the male Ime by order of

exported. The mining industry of the country pnmogeniture. The executive power is vested m

is very little developed. In 1920, 341,950 tons of the kmg, who names the officials and promulgates

coal were mined in Servia, 387,390 tons in Croatia the laws, but all acts issued by him must be

and Slavonia, 1,193,874 tons in Slovenia, 826,669 countersigned by the responsible mimster. He also

tons in Bosma and Herzegovina, and 473,850 tons nominates the members of the Council of State,

m Pecs. Servia suffered much during the war which is the highest administrative court. The

by the devastation of her forests by the enemy and legislative power is entrusted to the National

the destruction of the sawmills. In Bosnia timber Skupshtma (Assembly) elected by universal ballot,

is the chief export, half of the area being covered direct and secret, m the ratio of one deputy to

by forests. The imports of Jugodavia in the first each 50,000 inhabitants, ab9ut 280 in all, with

nine months of 1920 were valued at 2,577,709,123 representation of the mmonties. For judicial pur-

dinars (1 dinar = $0,193 normal exchange); the poses there is a Court of Cassation at Zagreb,

exports for the same period, 716,393,284 dinars. The Part III of the constitution is composed of social

commercial balance which showed a deficit in 1919 and econoinic regulations aa to the protectwn of

of 2,364,856,000 dinars had a depreciating influence labor, health, marriage, insurance against accident,

on the value of the dinar. In 1920 Jugoslavia ilhiess, unemployment, mcapacitation, old a^fc and

had 5684 miles of railway, of which 3732 are of death. It also contains two agmficant provisions:

normal gauge and 1952 of narrow gauge. Direct No one is obliged to take part m rehgious acts,

traffic is in oneration with all the neighboring celebrations, ntes, and prac^ces, except on SUte

states, except Kumania and Hungary. The total holidays and celebrations. Religious leaders may

length of the waterways, including the Danube, not employ their spiritual authonty for partisan

Save, Drave, and Tisa, is 1322 miles. River traffic aims outside their houses of worship, or beyond

is under the control of the Navigation Syndicate, prescripts of a relirious character, or otherwise in

in which the Government holds 51% of the shares the fulfillment of their official duty,

and the syndicate 49%. It is planned to make the In May, 1914, a Concordat was concluded between

Morava River navigable, in order to connect the Servia and the Vatican, under which a Cathohc

productive land in Central Servia with the Danube. Archbishopric of Belgrade was to be ^blished

The exterior debt before the war of 1914 was with jurisdiction over the Catholics within the old

903310,000 francs; during the war, approximately frontiers of Servia. Senna proper was almost en-

1363,212,500 francs; after the war, 434,900,000 francs, tirely Orthodox until after the Balkan Wars, when