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than ten thousand people. Atchison has 12,630; state to do so. The recent adoption of the farm-

Leavenworth, 16,912; Wichita, 72,217; Kansas City, homes-amendment was aimed at checking the

101,177; and Topeka, 50,022. In 1920 the aggregate growth of land tenantry in the State and to

in cities of above 10,000 was 417,749, or 13j6% strengthen agricultural conditions as to farm labor

of the total population. The latest statistics show and soil conservation. The good roads amendment

2618 divorces and 18,162 marriages in one year. in 1920 limited the State's help to 25 per cent of

Education. — ^If the majority of the electors of the cost of the road, and to $10,000 per mile for

the county favor it, a high school may now be estab- more than 100 miles in any coimty.

lished at the discretion of the county commissioners Kansas contributed during the World War

and on petition of one-fourth of the electors. Four 63,428 soldiers, or 1.69 per cent of the total furnished

years are now required for completion of the high by the United States. Camp Funston was estab-

school courses of instruction. The Legidature of lished in the State for the troops of the 89th and

1917 was authorized to levy a permanent tax for 92d divisions, the support of educational institutions. The total

school population in 1918 was 620,991, and the enrol- Kansas City (Kabanopoutana), Diocese of (cf.

ment 405^19. The average daily attendance was C. E., VIII-602a), in Missouri, suffragan of St.

288,286. There were 16,^5 teachers. The total Louis. The first bishop of this diocese, Rt. Rev. John

cost of the public schools in 1918 was $17,102,644. Joseph Hogan, who had filled the see from 1880,

The State Scnool Book Commission was established died 21 February, 1913, and was succeeded by his

in 1913. coadjutor, Rt. Rev. Thomas Francis Lillis, who

The student membership at the State educational had been consecrated Bishop of Leavenworth 27

institutions in 1919 was as follows: University of December, 1904, transferred to Kansas City as

Kansas, Lawrence, 3915; Kansas State Agricultural coadjutor with right of succession 14 March, 1910,

College, Manhattan, 2171; Kansas State School taking possession of the see 21 February, 1913.

for the Deaf, Olathe, 223. Non-Catholic denomina- Two diocesan synods have been held since 1910,

tional colleges have invested in equipment and one April 9, 1912, and the last April 20, 1920, to

endowment about $16,000,000. They represent give effect to the instructions and legislative acts

faculties of 250 persons, instructing 3500 students of the Holy See as provided in the New Canon

at an annual expense of $607,000. In 1920 there were Law. The sixteenth (and last) annual convention

SlOprivate and denominational schools in Kansas. of the American Federation of Catholic Societies

The laws of 1915 empower the counties having was held at Kansas City August 26-29, 1917, the

a population of more than 60,000 and less than Papal Delegate, His Excellency John Bonsano, and

75,000 to establish public service institutions, indud- twenty-five archbishops and bishops attending,

ing a county home, county hospital, and a tuber- During the decade 1910-20 the Kansas City dio-

culosis hospital. In 1917 a State Board of AdminiB- cese has enjoyed a steady growth in the number

tration was created to constitute the Board of of priests, parishes, educational and charitable in-

Trustees for the control of educational, benevolent, stitutions. The number of priests has increased

and penal institutions. For this purpose the board from 101 in 1910 (70 secular ind 31 religious) to

appomts a business manager to manage such institu- 146 (102 secular, 44 regular) at present (1921).

tions with the advice of the board, and to purchase The total number of Sisters now working in the

supphes. A Workman's Compensation Law has diocese is 530, compared with 350 ten vears ago;

been adopted. The establishment at Topeka of a eight new parishes were established dimns this

State Industrial Farm for women prisoners was period, and in many instances the first church,

provided for by the Legislature in 1917. rectory or school has been replaced by a modem

According to the United States census of 1916 structure. The number of parochial schools has

all the church property in the State was valued grown from 42 to 50, and the number of children

at $23308,000. The Catholic population in 1921 attending them from 5543 to 7873. There are 10

was 134,220, an increase of nearly 70% in* forty academies for girls attended by about 600 pupils,

years. For details with regard to ecclesiastical his- A desire for a higher education for bo3rs than that

toiy see Leavenworth, Diocese or; Concordia, Dio- afforded in the parish school found its realization

CESE op; Wichita, Diocese of. in the establishment of two coUeses, De La Salle

Lbqiblation.— Property passing to direct descend- Academy (1910), in charge of the Christian Brothers,

ants is tax exempt; to brothers or sisters $5000 and Rockhurst College (1914), conducted by the

exempt; to near Kindred the tax is graduated; to Jesuit Fathers, both in Kansas City; their present

others more remote the rates are higher. This enrollment is 565. There are three orphan homes

does not apply to constitutional exemptions, in the diocese, two in Kansas City (one for girls

Columbus Day (12 October) and Election Day with 150 and one for bo3rs with 145 inmates), and

(first Tuesday in November) are now included St. Francis Convent at Nevada, Mo., attended by

among the legal holidays. In 1912 the full exercise 125 children. Two new hospitals have been added

of suffrage was conferred upon women, a right tp the six already existing in 1910, and the Catholic

which in 1918 was restricted to citizens of the League Hotel (1911) and St. Catherine's Convent

United States. (1921) provide a home for young women employed

Recent Histort. — ^An important step in the* in- in stores, offices, etc. St. Vincent's Maternity Hos-

dustrial progress of the United States was taken pital was established in 1914. The new $400,000

when the Kansas Court of Industrial Relations was House of the Good Shepherd was completed last

established as a court to find solution for industrial year. The total number of children under Catholic

controversies and to protect the public against care has increased from 5773 in 1910 to 8000 in

waste and danger of industrial war. It was meant 1920, and the total Catholicpopulation from 55,000

as a court of human relations, not as a public in 1910 to 75,500 in 1920. Tne number of parishes

utilities commission, but the public utilities cases in the cit^ of Kansas City has grown from 2S to

so increased that the court was robbed of the 32, including one for the Mexicans (1915), one for

opportunity to do more than care for the acute the Polish Catholics (1913), and St. Monica's, in

industrial cases. Kansas ratified the federal suffrage charge of the Franciscan Fathers (1910), for the

amendment 16 June, 1919, and the prohibition Catholic negroes. There are 26 missions with

amendment 14 Januaiy, 1919, the twenty-eighth churches, 108 churches, and 30 chapels.