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lapse of a period equal to that of their previous potash mines. They were discovered in 1904, and absence. Ii sisters are sent to collect they must by 1913 there were 160 borings. Alsatian salts con- always go in twos and must have sufficient funds to tain more potash in a pure state, viz., 20 per cent bring them home; furthermore, before going any- as against 12 to 13 elsewhere. The shafts had nearly where they must notifv the person to whom they all come to a working order by the outbreak of have to present the bishop's letters, so that he may the war, and in 1917, if conditions had remained secure proper accommodation for them. normal, each shaft would have produced 1,000 to

Vbmbbsch-Cuubbn, Epitome jurU canonici, n. «2e-27. 1,200 tons a day, about 6,000,000 tons for the whole

S^FSr^lwiTo^'o/X' oWe^ SZiSt potash salta were mined «. inc^ase of 65 per cent

Se Archd^iese oYNew York. 1^1864 he came "T u*'*-P'?'"*^o5LyP' ^?^ f°'°'i?*i^Pi"r

to the United States and enter^ the Order of the ^^ nuned was 96^ tons In Aupist. im the

Christian BrothMTspending the first years of his ^^"^^^ Chamber passed a bUl providing for the ao-

career at St. Maiy's IchooTand the oft Cathedral <l'»»it«»' f^ eqmpment by the state of the potwh

School, New YOTk. His next charge was the ,T°** "^ '^'*- ^'^t^J^vi '^^% "^w^ H

junior clals of old be La Salle Institute, whence 1^« ^mmisKuy-general of the French

he was appointed to Albany AcaXmy. In 1881 Strasburg. the railway wstem of Alsace-Lorraine

Brother Afpheus was named director of De La was. to be reorganized and operated by an admima-

Salle Institute, where Archbishop Hughes of New *L**'^* <,t°**?: ^*^ headquarters at Strasburg imder

York, Archbishop Mundelein of Chic^o. and the *^, a«thonty of the commissary^seneral From

late Bishop Mc&omieU of Brooklyn ^e^ among ^.^ Jilv^i i^^tSaJfm^fa^ th^otS

JiuencT i'o7rhe"^Uy yerieZd W ^^. ""-^^ ^-« ^-^^ by the Iffeient states

^ J .Ti vT jC,, ""^y j^**" "« *«.^ i-r^^** withm the empire, connected with the ClasonPoint Academy and the EDUCATioN.-ln 1914, besides the University of New York Cathohc Protectory. Strasburg, which had in that year 176 profeLm

Alsace-Lorraine (cf. C. E., I-341d), the former and 2,220 students, the following educational in- German Imperial territory acquired by France by stitutions existed: 18 gymnasia, 3 progymnasia, the treaty of Versailles, signed 28 June, 1919, the 6 higher reaUchulen, 7 realschiden, 4 reaUchvlen possession dating from the Armistice of 11 Novem- united with gymnasia, 1 agricultural school, 1 Der^ 1918. It is oivided into the departments of Bas- technical school, 7 seminaries, 5 preparatory schools Rhm, containing 1^48 sq. miles and a population of for teachers, 6S girls' higher schools, 23^ ele- 700,738; Haut-Khin, 1,354 sq. miles, population 517,- mentary schools, 68 private elementary schools, 504 865; and Moselle, 2,403 sq. miles, population 655,211. infant schools, 52 intermediate schools, 5 institu- The largest cities with their population in 1910 are : tions for the deaf and dumb, 2 institutions for the Strasburg, 178301; Mtilhausen, 105,488; Metz, 79,318. blind and 2 for imbeciles. About 1,800,000 marks In 1910 in German Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland) were spent on the University of Strasburg. In there were 1,428,343 Catholics, 408,274 Protestants their haste to re-introduce the French language of various German churches, 3,868 Christians of into the schools, the French have encountered other denominations, 30,483 Jews, and 3,046 ad- difficulties. The Alsatian teachers had been for- herents of other religions or unclassified. In Kreis merly in German normal schools and therefore were Zabem the Protestants were in the majority, as regarded with suspicion. The Germans had left also in Strasburg. In Lower Alsace the Catholics nothing undone that could bestow on them a were about 62 per cent of the population ; in Upper German mentality and so combat the influence of Alsace they formed 84 per cent; in Mulhausen they the French priests. About 80 per cent did not outnumbered the Protestants by six to one, in Geb- understand irench nor much about French litera- weiler by 25 to 1, and in Altkirch by 44 to 1. In ture, all they knew about France and her people German Lorraine the proportion of Catholics was being derived from hostile German sources, m the about 90 per cent, Protestants were strongest in German normal schools. The question was how Metz, which had more than 1 to 3 Catholics and to replace them until they were assimilated to the weakest in Kreis Bolchen, where there was only French civilization.

one Protestant to one hundred Catholics. The Ecclbsustical History.— In recognizing the Jews have declined steadily from 40,812 in 1871 French sovereignty in Alsace-Lorraine, the Pope to 30,483 in 1910. accepted the resignation of the German Bishops of

According to the census of 1910, 1,634,260 persons Strasburg; and Metz and appointed them arch- spoke German; 3,395 were bilingual; 204,262 spoke bishops m Pariibus. In April, 1919, President Poin- French. Compared with the figures of 1905 there car6 nomihated Monsignor Ruch, Bishop of Nancy, is a decline of bilinguals, and of French speakers in for the Bishopric of Strasburg, and Monsignor Kelb German Lorraine, but an increase in Alsace, espe- for that of Metz. This caused an animated debate cially in the towns. German had been the official in the French Chamber and led the Foreign Min- language for business, was used in the schools, and ister, M. Richon, to explain that the policy of was the only language heard by the vast majority France was to uphold the Concordat in Alsace- of the conscripts from Alsace-Lorraine during their Lorraine. The nominees were given canonical in- three years of military service; the surprising thing stitution by the pope.

is that there has been any increase in the use of For religious statistics see Stbasbubg, Diogbsb of; French in Alsace, a result which can be traced to Metz, Diocbsb of.

the nationalist (Francophil) movement. During Civil History, 1910-1920. — ^The recent history of the war the French language was totally prohibited Alsace-Lorraine has been one continual agitation in Alsace-Lorraine, French names being superseded for its return to France. In the first decade of by German names, and the native soldiers of the the twentieth century the German Government felt garrison of Strasburg being forbidden to speak that the arrangements of the Government of French in the streets. Alsace-Lorraine were not satisfactoiy, for the spirit

Economic Conditions.— The economic impor- of opposition seemed to grow. Therefore, in June» tance of Alsace-Lorraine centers chiefly around her 1911, a new Constitution was granted. It was de-