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ALTAMUEA 31 ALTOK

clared that the sovereign power in Alsace-Lorraine all, on the university, whose endowments were on

was vested in the emperor, at the head of the Gov- lavish scale, all of course in the interest of Ger-

emment was placed the Statthalier, nominated and manizing the country. This talent for organization

removable by the emperor. The task of legislating and administration was missed by the inhabitants

for the country was taken from the Bundesrat and under the first years of French rule and made the

Beichstag and entrusted to the emperor and a change from German to French rule one of greater

Landtag of two Chambers. The Upper Chamber difficulty than was anticipated. Such will be the

included thirty-six persons, representatives of bodies existing situation for a few years to come.

controlliM rdigious and economic intere^^ Altamura and Acquaviva (Altamurensis bt

the Catholic Archbishops of Strasburg^a^^ Aoquivavbnsis; cf. C. E., I-345d , an exS arclS-

etc. The proposed Constitution fe^^ the ^yterate in the province of Ban, in louthem

P'^^StS" /^T'it^ V^^l^f^^^'ZLti W. In 1920 Altamura had 19.333 Catholics and

manded that Alsace-Lormme be placed on equal ^ p/rfshes; Acquaviva, 8,527 Catholics and 1 parish;

footing with the other States of the empire, al- ^y^ oKoiif sn T^Uaa^a f«,. fV,^ ^v^rxU *JL;*^^r

though it might have proved feasible if the Ger- ^^®^® *^® ^^°"* ^ P"^«^ ^°^ ^^® ^*^ole temtory.

man Government had not been suspicious of Altar (cf. C. E., I-346a) .—Every fixed altar

French tendencies. In 1913 occurred the Zabem should have its own name, the hi^h altar having the

(Saveme) incident, the bullying of a defenseless same title as the church; this name, unlike that of

cripple by a yoimc German officer. The dispropor- a portable altar, may not be changed even with

tionate violence which at once placed the town imder the ordinary's consent. No altar may be dedicated

a state of siege, the explanation given that the under the title of one of the beatified except by

German garrison felt they were camping in an special permission of the Holy See. Care must

enemy country, the acquittal of the young officer be taken that an altar is never used for any pro-

for wounding the lame cobbler on the incredible fane purpose; if a corpse has been interred within

ground that he was acting in self-defense, all showed a metre of an altar. Mass may not be celebrated

the position of Alsace-Lorraine in the eyes of the there until the body has been removed,

militaiy party. A vote of censure was passed by Bishops, abbots and prelates ntdlius, vicars and

the Reichstag, but it was actuated by a dislike of prefects Apostolic, and higher superiors of exempt

the German military methods, not by empathy religious orders are now authorized by the common

with Alsace-Lorraine, where the repressive measures law to designate and declare privileged daily

continued until the outbreak of the war. and perpetually one altar in their cathedrals, al>-

Further hostility toward Germany is proved by beys, collegiate, conventual, parish or quasi-parish the treatment of Alsace-Lorraine at the outbreak churches, provided the privilege has not been con- of the European War. As early as 20 July, 1914. ferred already on another altar in such church, the country was placed imder martial law, and They cannot do this, however, in public or semi- hundreds of persons who figured in the police lists public oratories unless these are united to or are Bs suspects were instantly arrested and imprisoned subsidiaries of a parish church. All altars are now without trial. On their first entry into Mulhausen privileged on the feast of All Souls and in churches (8 August, 1914) the French troops were received on the days during which the Forty Hours' Adora- "with transports of joy, while the inhabitants be- tion is being held there.

haved like a lot of lunatics (Breiqgauer Zeitimg, Among recent instances in which the privilege

10 October, 1915). During the first two years of has been granted to members of pious associations

the war forty-eight persons were convicted of high are the following : in November, 1918, to the Pious

treason, fifty-four of aiding and abetting desertion. Union of the Clergy; in June, 1920, to the Holy

317 of anti-German sentiments, and about 6,000 were Name Society; in April, 1921, to the Apostolic

deprived of their German nationality. At the end Union of Priests; to each on four days a week;

of 1916 the number of desertions (Alsatian) ex- and in July, 1921, to the Society of the Three Hail

ceeded 30,000, and according to the French more Marys for three days each week. In rare cases

than 20,000 Alsatians were serving in the French the Church grants the favor of a privileged altar

army. For the details of the French campaign in for the benent of the living; thus on 15 June, 1917,

Alsace-Lorraine during the European War see War. Pope Benedict XV conferred it on members of the

By a decree of 2d November, 1918, the French sodality called '*A Transitu S. Joseph," as often as Government took over the administration of the they said Mass for the agonizing. This probably territories until peace should be signed, French means that a plenary indulgence is applied to the troops meanwhile having occupied the country, dying person tor whom the Mass is offered, pro- French officers were placed in charge of affairs and video ne is in the state of grace and has the on 22 March, 1919, M. Alexandre Millerand was requisite intention of gaining the indulgence, appointed governor-general. This acquisition was Nothing is to be inscribedf on an altar to diow eonfirmed by the Treaty of Versailles. In 1919-20 it is privileged except altare vrivilegiatum (privi- the administrative system was centralized under a leged altar), with a word indicating whether the commissaiy general, aided by an advisory council, favor has been granted perpetually or temporarily. The unity of the region is retained, a species of Needless to say it is strictly forbidden for anyone reg;ionalism which seems very successful. Justice to ask a larger stipend for Masses offered at a wm be administered under the Ministry of Justice privileged altar than for those said elsewhere.

at Paris, M. Poincar6 having decided that hence- AifAiniiw«*<w. a«« p

forth the redeemed province shall be treated like ^*o»tt«»«*«- See Bridgiotineb.

the old department, eliminating the German laws Alton, Diocbsb of (Altonensis; cf. C. E., and courts code. As might have been expected, I-<367b), comprises 15,139 sq. miles in the State of some friction took place in the passing of the Illinois. It is at present (1022) under the adminis- region from German hands. The local administra- tration of its third bishop, Rt. Rev. James Ryan, tion and particularly the administration of justice consecrated 1 May, 1888. The Franciscan Fathers was good; the railway system and the industrial are established in this diocese and conduct Quincy wealth of the country were largely developed; and College and Seminary in Quincy, St. Francis Mon- in Strasburg a large amoimt of money had been astery and novitiate and St. Joseph's Seminary at spent on the improvement of the city, and above Teutopolis. The religious orders of women include s